Chapter 10 notes part 2 (1)

B is said to have a hybridization of sp 2 what about

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- B is said to have a hybridization of sp 2 - What about the hybridization of the F’s in BF 3 ? F is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 . Remember we learned that the halogens always form 1 covalent bond, so only 1 half- filled orbital is needed. Draw the orbital energy diagram of N and H in NH 3 .
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- First draw the orbital energy diagram for the atomic orbitals. - Then draw an arrow showing which orbitals are mixed to form the new hybrids. Each orbital used in a covalent bond should be half filled. - Hybrid orbitals containing lone pairs should be completely filled. s and p character : the more p orbitals used to make a hybrid, the more p character in terms of shape and e- distribution, the hybrid has. sp sp2 sp3 10.4 Description of Multiple Bonds (σ and π bonds) In general: 1. Every lone pair and single covalent bond need a hybrid orbital (sp, sp 2 , sp 3 , sp 3 d, sp 3 d 2 , etc). There can only be one hybrid orbital possible between two atoms. 2. Double and triple covalent bonds are formed from pure (un-hybridized) p orbitals. Un-hybridized p orbitals are narrower than s based hybrids and fit better in the space between atoms containing one hybridized orbital. Examine the orbital energy diagrams of ethene (C 2 H 4 ) and ethyene (C 2 H 2 ) and determine the hybirdization of C in each molecule.
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