us, that "spell out words which do not exist unless in the rea imagination" (160). He even "leaves a blank page on which the r can inscribe his own account" of Widow Wadman: "'paint her to own mind . . . please but your own fancy"' (Sterne 3:227). And S even has his reader talk back to his narrator: -How could you, Madam, be so inattentive in reading the last chapter? I told you in it, That my mother was not a papist. -Papist! You told me no such thing, Sir. (1:94). Elsewhere Sterne plays off one reader against another, and addresses not only readers, but also the "Gentle critick!" (e.g., 1:141). It is worth reminding ourselves that direct addresses to the reader were not quite so common in nineteenth-century and early-modernist novels. Even in Joyce's own Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Stephen famously proclaims that "the artist, like the god of the creation, remains within or behind or beyond or above his handiwork, invisible, refined out of existence, indifferent, paring his fingernails" (215). The narrators of the Portrait and Ulysses are much more remote than that of the Wake, and the readers of Joyce's earlier novels are never so directly addressed. The barroom narrator of "Cyclops" could be interpreted as speaking to the reader, and the catecism of "Ithaca" could be viewed as a test for the reader much like the Wake's quiz, but not even in those chapters does Joyce's narrator ever directly address the reader. In the Wake, however, Joyce invokes eighteenth-century formulae: "This, lay readers and gentilemen, is perhaps the commonest of all cases" (573.35-36). "It was in the back of their mind's ear, temptive lissomer .... So it was, slipping beauty" (477.18, 23). But Joyce goes a step further: he frequently subverts the traditional distinctions between narrator and reader, between producer and consumer, and between 309 This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Tue, 03 Jul 2018 21:04:58 UTC All use subject to
TWENTIETH CENTURY LITERATURE writer and critic. At one point he alludes to An Exagminati Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress, the collection organized by Joyce himself in celebration of his "Work in P published in 1929, ten years before the book publication of "His producers are they not his consumers? Your exagminat his factification for incamination of a warping process" (49 An Exagmination round His Factification, whose contributo Samuel Beckett and William Carlos Williams, was only one w Joyce left his mark on many of the major critics who then his work. As Derrida famously remarked at the 1984 Joyce "Deconstruction could not have been possible without Jo Jones 77). Joyce's traces are also evident in other influen statements on the reader's role in fiction that shed light on Walker Gibson's 1950 essay on the "mock reader," Nort remarks in Fearful Symmetry and The Anatomy of Criticism, W The Implied Reader, and finally the poststructuralist works Barthes, Helene Cixous, Derek Attridge, and Michel F synopsis of these critical statements also serves to remind u understanding of the reader-writer relationship has change past few decades, in ways that have been influenced by Joy helpful to an appreciation of the reader in the Wake. G
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