Alexander III a brutal czar who targeted anyone who questioned his authority

Alexander iii a brutal czar who targeted anyone who

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Alexander III – a brutal czar who targeted anyone who questioned his authority, the Orthodox religion, or using the Russian language-used spies and a secret police-censored all new ideas and the media-political prisoners were shipped off to Siberia48
-encourage attacks on Jews, called Pogroms Nicholas II – The last CzarNot as harsh as his father, but chose not to change the old way of things Did try to advance industry, and there was some growthTrans-Siberian Railway completed in 1904 Some people resented this new industrial wayBEFORE THE REVOLUTIONThe Industrial RevolutionA 19th and 20th century process by which machine power automated theproduction of goods – i.e. textiles no longer manufactured at home, but mass-produced in factoriesUpside – goods get cheaper, transportation improved, communication advances Downside – long hours, dangerous conditions, child labor, low pay, poverty,slums in cities, people displaced from old jobs and farmsRadicals UniteIn clubs called Soviets, educated people gather to talk about the ideas of Karl Marx They discussed ways to bring about a revolution in Russia – often in secretThey split on ways to do thisBolsheviks – wanted a dictatorship of the workers run by full-time revolutionariesMensheviks – wanted a popularly elected and mandated revolution Vladimir Lenin – a ruthless young leader of the Moscow SovietEarly1900s – fled to Western Europe to avoid arrest His movement went on without him1904-1917 – A series of Crises1. 1905 – Russo-Japanese War – Japan wins some key islands once owned by Russia2. Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905) – Peasants approach the Czar’s winter palace in St. Petersburg (he wasn’t there) with a petition asking for better work conditions and food. Troops opened fire on the crowd of women and children and as many as 1000 die.3. The Duma – 1906 – a legislative body made by the Czar in response to national unrest – hedissolved it weeks later. Others met, yet did nothing.4. WWI – 1914-1917 – An unmitigated disaster for Russia.Weak generals, poorly equipped troops (some sent with no gun!) 4 million Russian soldiers die in the first yeardrained the government money reservesfood shortages begin again5. Rasputin – Nicholas goes to the front, his wife turns to a holy man/psychic for help in running the government. Russians are furious about this.49
THE FEBRUARY REVOLUTION, 1917Saint Petersburg, a city-wide strike and food riot eruptsThe army turns on their commanders and joins the crowds “down with autocracy” “down with the war”The Czar steps down – cities were in chaos A provisional government is establishedHeaded by Alexander KerenskyHe votes to stay in the war – something very few wantedTHE OCTOBER (BOLSCHEVIK) REVOLUTION, 1917Soviet councils around the country armed themselvesAn army stormed the Winter Palace and took over the government“Peace, Land, Bread” was the slogan heard. More city governments fell in months after The Germans had secretly shipped Lenin back into Russia1. Orders the redistribution of noble land to all peasants2. Bows out of war with peace treaty with

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