There were 300 participants in the study 150 cases

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coronary heart disease (CHD). There were 300 participants in the study (150 cases and 150 controls). Of the cases, 90 participants drank alcohol; of the controls, 60 participants drank alcohol. Design the appropriate 2x2 table, calculate and interpret the appropriate measure of association. CHD No CHD Drank Alcohol 90 60 No Alcohol 60 90 Odds ratio = = (A*D) / (B*C) = (90*90)/(60*60)=2.25 People who drink alcohol are 2.25 times more likely to develop coronary artery disease. You suspect that the association between alcohol use and CHD might be confounded by smoking. You collect the following data: Smokers Non-Smokers CHD No CHD CHD No CHD
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Alcohol Use 80 40 10 20 No Alcohol Use 20 10 40 80 Calculate the appropriate measure of association between alcohol use and CHD in both smokers and non-smokers. Discuss whether smoking was a confounder of the association. What is the relationship of alcohol use to CHD after controlling for confounding? Odds Ratio for Smokers: Odds ratio = (A*D) / (B*C) = (80*10)/ (20*40) = 1 Odds smokers for Non-Smokers: Odds ratio = (A*D) / (B*C) = (10*80)/ (20*40) = 1 Hence we can conclude that smoking was a confounder of the association. After controlling for smoking, we get non-significant association between CHD and use of alcohol. A study was conducted in young adults to look at the association between taking a driver's education class and the risk of being in an automobile accident. 450 participants were included in the study, 150 cases who had been in an accident and 300 controls who had not. Of the 150 cases, 70 reported having taken a driver's education class. Of the 300 controls, 170 reported having taken a driver's education class.
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