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Chapter 7 - The Endocrine System

Hypothalamic neurohormones from the posterior

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Hypothalamic neurohormones from the posterior pituitary (D.1.c) Hypothalamic neurohormones that control hormone release from the anterior pituitary E) Pituitary Gland: two gland in one! (Fig. 7.9) E.1) Posterior Pituitary Gland (E.1.a) The posterior pituitary is an extension of neural tissue of the brain. (E.1.b) It releases 2 neurohormones: Vasopressin (ADH) (E.1.b..i) Regulates water balance Oxytocin (E.1.b..i) controls ejection of milk in breast-feeding and contractions of the uterus during labor and delivery (E.1.c) These neurohormones are made in separate cell types in the hypothalamus and transported to the posterior pituitary for release. E.2) Anterior Pituitary (Fig. 7.9) (E.2.a) The anterior pituitary is a true endocrine gland derived from epithelial tissue. (E.2.b) Releases 6 hormones: Prolactin Thyrotropin or Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) Growth Hormone (GH) Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) Luteinizing Hormone (LH) (E.2.c) Secretion of these hormones is under control of hypothalamic neurohormones. (E.2.d) All but one of the anterior pituitary hormones target endocrine glands or cells
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a hormone that controls secretion of another hormone is called a trophic hormone Usually named by the target tissue with the suffix -tropin (E.2.e) However, hypothalamic hormones that control anterior pituitary hormones are generally called either releasing or inhibiting hormones. E.3) Hypothalamic-Anterior Pituitary Pathway (E.3.a) Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Portal System E.4) Endocrine Control (E.4.a) There are 3 levels of control of the endocrine pathways initiated by centers in the brain: CNS stimulation of the hypothalamus stimulation Hypothalamic trophic hormones stimulation of the pituitary Pituitary trophic hormone stimulation of other endocrine glands E.5) Control of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Pathway (E.5.a) The feedback reflexes involving the anterior pituitary are among the most complex because they involve 3 integration centers. (E.5.b) In this system, instead of the response acting as the negative feedback signal, the hormones themselves become the signal.
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