MANNING_STRATEGIES_IN_GREEK-OWNED_SHIPPI.pdf

In recruitment of their national seamen to man their

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in recruitment of their national seamen to man their flags, some traditional maritime nations, such as United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, Poland, Spain, Australia, and France, have become important suppliers of officers on ships flying foreign flags. In the first place of the ten top labour supplying countries are the Philippines, with 19%. The rest countries are Indonesia, Turkey, China, India, Russia, Japan, Greece, Ukraine, and Italy. In general, the 36.6% of seafarers’ supply is concentrated in Far East Asia, while 27.7% includes Japanese, Europeans and North Americans. Moreover, East-Europeans represent the 16.8% of the world seagoing labour market, Indian and Pakistani represent the 10.2%, and, last come the Africans and Latin- Americans with 8.7%. Apart from the quantitative way of describing the world seagoing labour, there is also the qualitative. Quality of labour can be measured by the education or experience. Seafarers with long experience on ships have an informal training, as seafarers who have attended formal educational courses. Although it has been found that 60% of Officers and 77% of Ratings from OECD countries believe that the training of seafarers in their country is inadequate (OECD 2003), it should be recognised that most Officers from the traditional maritime regions are well trained and educated, and are also, the most expensive seafarers. On the other hand, seafarers from developing countries, who are mostly ratings, are insufficiently or not trained at all. Their experience is progressing, by working on ships with the flag of their country or other. The qualifications of a great number of them might be questioned, not only because of lack of training, but also because of falsification of certificates, a matter that should also be considered, and which needs further examination. According to Obando- Rojas, Gardner and Naim (1999), the key to achieving a balance between officers supply and demand lies in the level of recruitment and in job retention. Recruitment is related to career plan and training, while job retention is related to job satisfaction, health and employers’ attitude. 3.2 The role of manning agencies Lane (2000) mentions that what apparently characterises the global labour market is simultaneously its global inclusiveness and its global organisation of recruitment. He comments that while among crew managers there is an hierarchy of preferred nationalities, all available nationalities are regarded as potentially employable and recruitment to ships is organised by a dynamic system of globally 6
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trading manning companies. Manning agencies, either as subsidiaries of ship management companies, or as independent entities, have the main responsibility of selecting and recruiting seafarers. As seen in the upper layer of figure 1, the seafarer seeks for a job through several networks. During his/her initial training in Marine Academies, he/she tries to obtain experience by working on ships as a cadet. Marine Academies often co-operate with shipping companies (owners or managers), agents, and even trade unions, in order for the students to be hired. Seafarers who are
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