6 appropriate building densities and land uses should

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6. Appropriate building densities and land uses should be within walking distance of transit stops, permitting public transit to become a viable alternative to the automobile. 7. Concentrations of civic, institutional, and commercial activity should be embedded in neighbourhoods and districts, not isolated in remote, single-use complexes. Schools should be sized and located to enable children to walk or bicycle to them. 8. The economic health and harmonious evolution of neighbourhoods, districts, and corridors can be improved through graphic urban design codes that serve as predictable guides for change. 9. A range of parks, from tot lots and village greens to ballfields and community gardens, should be distributed within neighbourhoods. Conservation areas and open lands should be used to define and connect different neighbourhoods and districts. Table 2.2 Principles of the New Urbanism (Neighbourhood, District, and Corridor) Source: Leccese and McCormick , 2000
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45 2.4.5.3 Block, Street and Building The block, street and building principles of the New Urbanism are all about design and aesthetic impact. Retaining old knowledge about urban planning and design is one of the goals of the New Urbanism. Modern architecture in object-making and buildings as “machine of living” has ruined the quality of urban life. Therefore, the New Urbanism reassures that blocks, streets and buildings are interdependent, in order to create public realm. The term “public realm” is also known as public space, which describes the land in the public domain, including streets, sidewalks, open space, parks and plazas. Public realm is a truly shared place in a society which brings people from different background together and promotes social interaction (Moule and Polyzoide, 1994). To guarantee public realm is accessible to all people socially and physically, the New Urbanism introduces various principles at the most elementary scale (Table 2.3). 2.4.5.3.1 Urban Safety Achieving urban safety can encourage walking and enable neighbours to know each other, thus it is the most fundamental goal of all cities. Good urban design is an essential component in creating secure urban environments. Several qualities are required to reinforce safe space (Leccese and McCormick, 2000).
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46 a) Human presence: Natural surveillance is a key to neighbourhood safety. To ensure the safety of a place, buildings facing the public space should include doors and windows, since they are regarded as symbols of human presence, whether there are people inside or not. Mixed uses of a space can also create a safe neighbourhood, as it can promote 24-hour human presence. b) Congeniality: Optimal dimensions and scale of a space can encourage social interaction among people. For instance, the sizes of buildings should be in scale with the dimensions of the space.
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