Mismatch repair enzyme fixes mismatches after replication is finished DNA

Mismatch repair enzyme fixes mismatches after

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Mismatch repair: enzyme fixes mismatches after replication is finished DNA polymerases check only 1/10 billion bps Repair enzymes exist DEFINITION GENE Specific nucleotides along a sequence of DNA that code for a particular protein or regulates the production of a gene product TRIPLE CODE Everything 3 nucleotides will code for 1 particular amino acid DNA DOGMA DNA to RNA to Protein
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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DNA AND RNA DNA RNA Double stranded Single stranded Uses thymine Uses uracil instead thymine Uses deoxyribose Use ribose, missing one oxygen on sugar More stable Lasts short, less stable Only in nucleus Made in nucleus, but mainly in cytoplasm Newer Older evolutionary TEMPLATE VS. GENE DNA STRANDS Gene → template Template is used to make mRNA Codons of mRNA are used to translate to protein ENZYMATIC PROPERTIES OF RNA (SPLICEOSOME/RIBOSOME) rRNA There is rRNA in spliceosomes TRANSCRIPTION PROMOTER/TATA BOX Transcription factors have to bind to the promoter region Upstream of gene TEMPLATE VS. NON-TEMPLATE STRAND - WHICH IS THE GENE Template strand - provides template for ordering sequence of nucleotide bases in mRNA transcript RNA POLYMERASE & TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS - READ 3’ TO 5’ Form a transcription unit Run down the template strand to make the RNA strand
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POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS OF PRIMARY mRNA TRANSCRIPT Remove introns so only exons remain Poly A-tail (50-250 adenine nucleotides) 5’ cap (modified form of guanine) Facilitate export of mRNA from nucleus Help protect mRNA from hydrolytic enzymes Help ribosomes attach to 5’ end of mRNA SPLICEOSOMES, EXONS, INTRONS, ETC. Spliceosomes - cut introns Exons - contain information for protein Introns - unnecessary information ALTERNATIVE RNA SPLICING Different polypeptides can result depending what parts of the transcript are treated as introns TRANSLATION RIBOSOMES READ 5’ TO 3’ 5’ to 3’ direction along the mRNA Carrying a specific AA, tRNAs, match anticodon to mRNA’s codon ANTI-CODON, CODON MATCHING Each tRNA molecule bears a specific AA at one end Other end is nucleotide triplet called anticodon Base-pairs with complementary codon on mRNA Includes loop containing anticodon and attachment site at 3’ end for AA POST-TRANSLATIONAL POLYPEPTIDE MODIFICATIONS Chaperone protein helps polypeptide fold correctly
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  • Fall '17
  • Cannobio
  • DNA, RNA

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