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B if an investor expects yields to fall substantially

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yield to maturity. b. If an investor expects yields to fall substantially, the 4% bond offers a greater expected return. c. Implicit call protection is offered in the sense that any likely fall in yields would not be nearly enough to make the firm consider calling the bond. In this sense, the call feature is almost irrelevant. 29. Market conversion value = value if converted into stock = 20.83 × $28 = $583.24 Conversion premium = Bond price – market conversion value = $775.00 – $583.24 = $191.76 30. a. The call feature requires the firm to offer a higher coupon (or higher promised yield to maturity) on the bond in order to compensate the investor for the firm's option to call back the bond at a specified price if interest rate falls sufficiently. Investors are willing to grant this valuable option to the issuer, but only for a price that reflects the possibility that the bond will be called. That price is the higher promised yield at which they are willing to buy the bond. 14-10
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b. The call feature reduces the expected life of the bond. If interest rates fall substantially so that the likelihood of a call increases, investors will treat the bond as if it will "mature" and be paid off at the call date, not at the stated maturity date. On the other hand if rates rise, the bond must be paid off at the maturity date, not later. This asymmetry means that the expected life of the bond is less than the stated maturity. c. The advantage of a callable bond is the higher coupon (and higher promised yield to maturity) when the bond is issued. If the bond is never called, then an investor earns a higher realized compound yield on a callable bond issued at par than a non-callable bond issued at par on the same date. The disadvantage of the callable bond is the risk of call. If rates fall and the bond is called, then the investor receives the call price and then has to reinvest the proceeds at interest rates that are lower than the yield to maturity at which the bond originally was issued. In this event, the firm's savings in interest payments is the investor's loss. 31. a. (iii) b. (iii) The yield to maturity on the callable bond must compensate the investor for the risk of call. Choice (i) is wrong because, although the owner of a callable bond receives a premium plus the principal in the event of a call, the interest rate at which he can reinvest will be low. The low interest rate that makes it profitable for the issuer to call the bond also makes it a bad deal for the bond’s holder. Choice (ii) is wrong because a bond is more apt to be called when interest rates are low. Only if rates are low will there be an interest saving for the issuer. c. (iii) d. (ii) e. (iii) 14-11
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