Education being financed by property taxes social

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Ex. Education being financed by property taxes Social institutions resist change   but why preserve unfair social structure? Social institutions operate in discriminatory environments Interactionist view “Our social behavior is conditioned by the roles and statuses we accept, groups to  which we belong, and the institutions within which we function.” TABLE 5-2 pg. 118 Understanding Organizations Formal organization – group designed for special purpose and structured for maximum  efficiency Fill variety of societal and personal needs Bureaucracy Component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve  efficiency Despite negative connotation, most people perform bureaucratic tasks Weber   similar structures of religion, government, education, business  ideal type – model to evaluate specific cases Doesn’t exist Characteristics of bureaucracy Division of labor Job specialization   can divide works and remove workers’ connection to overall  objective
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Marx’s manifesto   alienation, estrangement from society Trained incapacity – workers so specialized, fail to notice Ex. CIA, FBI, Defense intel., guarded information from one another regarding Al-Qaeda  and hindered national security Hierarchy of authority Each position under supervision by a higher authority Written rules and regulations Provide clear standards for adequate/exceptional performance “If blindly applied, rules no longer serve as a means to achieve an objective, but instead  become important in their own right.” Goal displacement – overzealous conformity to official regulations Impersonality Bureaucratic norm expelling personal attention Cold and uncaring Ex. Electronic menus Employment based on technical qualifications Discourages favoritism but also ambition to succeed in other areas Peter Principle – employees rise to their own level of incompetence TABLE 5-3, pg 120 McDonaldization – fast-food principles spilling over to the rest of the world Oligarchy – rule by a few Iron law of Oligarchy – even a democracy can become an oligarchy “Iron cage theory”
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Rank and file organizations look to leaders for direction Classical theory Employees motivated by economic rewards Physical constraints are the only limits to productivity Workers are resources   labor as “factor of production” Human relations approach Emphasizes role of people and participation Interactionists   worker’s feelings and need for job satisfaction Social Structure in Global Perspective Durkheim  Mechanical Solidarity When there is minimal division of labor, a collective  unconsciousness  develops Implies everyone performs the same tasks Organic solidarity Collective  consciousness
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