This means to decide to offer what? (Say the high quality synthetic fabrics as
its product offering). This means to view the position of proposed product in the minds of
customers and what image it proposes to build for its offer.
It is the process of designing and integrating various elements of marketing in such a
way as to ensure the achievement of enterprise objectives.
According to Philip Kotler
Marketing mix is the set of controllable variables that the firm can use to influence the buyers
In short, marketing mix involves decisions regarding products to be made available, the price to
be charged for the same and the incentives to be provided to the consumers in the markets where
products would be made available for sale.
Keeping in mind the interest of the consumer in totality and the goals of the organization in
terms of profit, quantity produced, cost, quality control within the prescribed budget the question
arises as to how the firm makes such a total offer to consumers. Thus the firm chooses the, (i)
product, (ii) performs distribution function, (iii) carries out promotional measures, and lastly the
firm uses the, (iv) pricing mechanism. These four activities are popularly known as
These four elements constitute the marketing mix of the firm.
This (marketing mix) concept was first coined/invented by James Culliton an American
marketing expert. This concept was popularized by Niel. H. Borden. Jerome McCarthy an
American Professor of marketing who described the marketing mix in terms of
classifying the variables under four heads, each beginning with letter P i.e Product, Place,
Promotion and Price. The marketing mix has many sub-elements.
Besides, the marketing mix variables, the manager of marketing mix has to function in another
set of variables called
: No. of customers, their location and purchasing power, habits of
purchase, brand awareness and brand loyalty, life style and needs.
: Nature and intensity of competition, number of competitors and
their size, capacity and territory of operation, strength and weakness of competitors,
costs, logistics or channels.