Examples A teaching method a medical treatment or training regimen Dependent

Examples a teaching method a medical treatment or

This preview shows page 8 - 15 out of 22 pages.

Examples : A teaching method, a medical treatment, or training regimen. Dependent variable(DV): The outcome of the changes brought by an independent variable. A phenomenon that is affected by the researcher’s manipulation of an- other phenomena. Examples : Achievement is the effect of a teaching method, cure or not the effect of a medical treatment, and higher skill level or not (achieve- ment) the effect of a training regimen. 8 / 22
Image of page 8
Types ofVariable Viewpoint of causal relationships From a viewpoint of causal relationships 3 Extraneous variables: Other variables, not measured in a study, may increase or decrease the magnitude or strength of the relationship between IV and DV. Example : When investigating the effect of television watching (IV) on achievement (DV), type of program is an extraneous variable. 4 Intervening (mediating) variable: A connecting or linking variable that links the IV and DV. This is a situation where the relationship between IV and DV can’t be established without the intervention of another variable. Example : When studying the association between income and longevity, access to medical care is an intervening variable. Independent Dependent Extraneous Intervening 9 / 22
Image of page 9
Types ofVariable Viewpoint of causal relationships Examples 10 / 22
Image of page 10
Types ofVariable Viewpoint of causal relationships Examples 11 / 22
Image of page 11
Types ofVariable Viewpoint of causal relationships Examples 12 / 22
Image of page 12
Types ofVariable Viewpoint of causal relationships Exercise List and label the variables in the following situations and illustrate by means of diagrams the relationship among the variables. 1 2 3 4 A study suggested that elementary students who watch TV more than 3 hours a day aremore likely to be overweight than students who watch less TV. People are de-motivated to consume alcohol knowing the consequence that it damages the liver leads to liver cirrhosis. Perhaps behavioral therapy works better for males and cognitive therapy works better for females. Research suggests that children who eat hot breakfast at home perform better at school. Many argue that not only hot breakfast but also parental care of children before they go to school has an impact on children’s performance. Lucy examined relationships between middle-school students’ self-esteem and their performance in Mathematics. Her data analysis indicated that students with higher self-esteem perform better than those with lower self-esteem. Her investigation further revealed that students with higher self-esteem are more willing to invest effort in solving mathematics problems. 13 / 22
Image of page 13