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80.What do written goals become?81.What is the purpose of an organization called?82.When setting goals, what should a manager do after writing down the goals and communicating them to all who need to know?
83. Three contingency factors that affect planning are length in the organization, degree of environmental uncertainty, and____________.level of future commitments84.____________ planning dominates managers’ planning efforts at lower levels of the organization.Operational85.The commitment concept means that plans should extend far enough to meet those commitments __________.made when the plans were developed86.Planning for too long or too short a time period _______________.is inefficient and ineffective87.As organizations expand and update their computing technology, they are _______________.committed to whatever future expenses are generated by that plan88.How an organization plans can be best understood by looking at ____________.who does the planning89.In the traditional approach to planning, planning was done entirely by top-level managers who were often assisted by____________.a group of planning specialists90. What is defined as a group of planning specialists whose sole responsibility was helping to write the various organizationalplans?91.When can the traditional top-down approach to planning be effective?92.When organizational members are more actively involved in planning, they see that the plans ____________.are more than just something written down on paper93.Managers who continue to do the things required to achieve the original goals of a plan _______________.may not be able to cope with a changed environment94.What is a frequently cited criticism of formal planning? 95.Visions have a tendency to _______________ as they evolve.become formalized96.Formal planning focuses managers’ attention on what?97.What argument against formal planning indicates that confidence in a plan is dangerous?98.A wireless networking technology called Wi-Fi that links together information devices is __________.revolutionizing all kinds of industries99.In an uncertain environment, managers want to develop _________ plans.64
specific but flexibleFormal plans serve as a roadmap although the destination may be changing constantly due to _______________.dynamic market conditions