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LA , Santa Barbara, Tucson- Mexicans where the original inhabitants■Anglos- newcomers who pushed Mexicans into increasingly isolated districts on the outskirts- barrios■Real-estate covenants tried to keep Mexican in barrios- bc no one would allow them to buy their houses
■Areas were outside central-city multiethnic borders housing European immigrants❖Cultural Adaptations➢Many foreigners identified themselves as where they are from➢Native-born Americans categorized themselves by their nationality➢Americans encouraged foreigners to assimilate themselves to the American way of life➢English language- was sort of forced into their lives■School and jobs➢Italian, Polish and Mexican were particular in keeping their heritage intact. ➢1870-1920- HUGE influx of immigrants!■From basically a Protestant Nation to MANY religions➢Catholics and Jews tried to accommodate➢Phased out “Old World” rituals■Saints’ Feasts■Public vs. Religious Schools ➢Immigrants were greeted with a stiff hostility■Lots of religious tension●Judaism➢Ended with American Folk Music/literature, Italian and Mexican cuisine, Irish cuisine, Yiddish Theater, African American jazz and dance etc. ❖Living Conditions in the Inner City➢Poverty, Crime, Disease and tension between the people in close quarters➢Inner City Housing■Lack of inexpensive living quarters distressed families■Low-income families adapted by sharing little space ■Landlords exploited housing shortages by packing people into small spaces■2-3 families normally lived in one apartment■1890- NYC: 702 people per acre■Conditions- harsh. Rooms (at best) were barely 10 feet wide. ■No windows- smelled bad. ■Privies- outdoor toilets■Only source of heat was dangerous and polluting coal-burning stoves.❖Housing Reform➢Issues with housing sparked widespread reform campaigns➢NY state laws- 1867, 79, 1901. ■Made sure there was light, ventilation, and safety codes for buildings■Reformers (Jacob Riis and Lawrence Veiller) advocated “model tenements”- that had spacious rooms for low-income families■Strengthened local government’s power to oversee construction❖New Home Technology➢Technology ultimately revolutionized home life■Furnaces, electric lighting, indoor plumbing ●Middle-class households➢Families used to buy coal and chop wood for cooking and heating■Candles for life■Hauled bath water■Their homes increasingly connected to outside pipes and wires for gas, water, and electricity
■The utilities help create new attitudes about privacy■Scientific and technological advances helped city dwellers and the nation to live healthier. ●1880’s- Began to believe disease was made by germs■Made more efficient water purification■Sewage disposal●Stopped diseases➢Street paving, and modernizing firefighting equipment➢Steel-frame construction■Made skyscrapers➢Steel-cable suspension bridges■Brooklyn bridge