Political equality struggle between forward looking

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political equalityStruggle between forward-looking liberals and backward-looking IndiansMass repression of the Mayans (30-40% die) bc Mexicans put lots money in warReinforced purely Mayan identity against Mexican invaders’ efforts to create a strong, centralized state à separation of Mayan IndiansMayans governed their domain in Yucatan autonomously almost completely cut off from the rest of MexicoThe Rebellion of 1857 In IndiaRule by British East India Company à dismantle traditions, take power from aristocracy, annex primarily independent domains, tax peasants directlyAttempt to annex Lucknow, work on unification through better infrastructureSparked by Indian solidier’s objection to having to bit the cartridge to open it and that had animal fat on it which violated Hindu & Muslim religious traditionsIssued a proclamation declaring that it was the duty of the wealthy and privileged to support the rebellion bc they were trying to destroy the religion of Hindus and MuslimsBritish reacted with brutal vengeance, in 1858 restore British rule but Parliament abolish company rule and transfer responsibility to the crownQueen Victoria declare religious toleration, improvements, and allowing Indians to serve in governmentsPowerful forces reconfigure the world as a place for capitalism, colonialism, and nation-states, so too did prophets, charismatic leaders, radicals, peasant rebels, and anticolonial insurgents arise to offer alternatives.Ch.17: Nations and Empires, 1850–1914Consolidating Nations and Constructing EmpiresNations- ppls who shared a common past, territory, culture, & traditionsLocal elites create nations by compelling diverse groups to accept unified network of laws, central administration, time zones, national markets, and a single regional dialectNation building required imperialism → economic power & conquest of new territories, colonies unrepresentedExpansion and Nation Building in the AmericasSaw most complete assimilation of new possessionsThe United States
Able to claim it bc of military might, diplomacy, and power of numbersManifest destiny- God’s will for the US to “overspread” North AmericaSlavery debate & civil war; mass industrializationCanadaPeaceful separation from Britain, European immigration, internal division bc different culturesUsed territorial expansion to build an integrated stateSigned treaties with indigenous people to avoid bloodshedLatin AmericaNation-state building and territorial border expansion lead to fracturing of countries in the regionPrivileged elites monopolized power bc held the richest lands; limited political rights of the poor to maintain their own powerConsolidation of Nation-States in Europenation-states took shape out of older monarchies and empires, and their borders were determined by diplomats or by battles

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