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Study Guide abnormal Exam 4 review

Typically becomes worse but sometimes remains static

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Typically becomes worse, but sometimes remains static or reverses - Know the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s dementia. - Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type
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- Symptoms may include: o Aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia o Irritability, personality changes, wandering o Final stages include: Difficulty in walking, talking, and self care o Death within 8-10 years from emergence of first symptoms - Two brain abnormalities associated with Alzheimer’s disease: o Neurofibrillary tangles tau proteins twisted together, destroying microtubules, leaving the neuron without a distribution system for nutrients o Amyloid plaques Fragments of protein accumulate on outside surfaces of neurons, particularly in the hippocampus Not yet determined whether these are causes or by-products of the disorder - Know the treatments for delirium, amnestic disorder, and dementia (mostly accommodating the reduced cognitive function rather than “curing” the condition). - Treating Delirium : Most often targets neurological factors - In most cases, delirium improves once medical condition or substance intoxication or withdrawal improves - Treatment may take days to affect delirium o Antibiotic treatment for bacterial pneumonia o Teaching patient to focus on the here and now o Making a safe environment o Educating those who interact with the patient - Amnestic Disorder : Goal of treatment is rehabilitation o Help patient learn to function as well possible o Techniques and strategies to compensate for memory problems Mnemonics - help organize and retrieve information Memory aids - diaries, notebooks, alarms, calendars, and PDAs o Organizing the environment to aid memory Labeling cupboards and doors, using distinctive colors, etc - Dementia: o Goal to maintain a high quality of life o Early stages of dementia often associated with depression and anxiety Treatment may focus on these comorbid conditions Reality orientation therapy - focusing on the here and now by providing orientation cues (day, month, time) Reminiscence therapy - stimulates memories that are least affected by dementia – their early lives o Some treatments focus on social factors Elder day care - day treatment for older adults with cognitive or physical impairments Education, support, and sometimes treatment for caregivers Chapter 16 Ethical and Legal Issues Be familiar with the following ethical and legal principles psychologists must follow:
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Confidentiality- May not disclose information about a patient (even whether someone is a patient) unless legally compelled to do so. APA Code of Ethics requires: Mental health records remain confidential Patients be informed about the limits of confidentiality Duty to warn/protect- Warn the intended victim or someone else who can warn the victim Notify law enforcement Take other reasonable steps Such as having the patient committed to a psychiatric facility Know the situations in which confidentiality can be broken - Confidentiality can be violated when: o
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