Two point discrimination 4 vibration ii anterolateral

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Two-point discrimination4.Vibrationii.Anterolateral system1.Temperature2.Pain3.Light touchd.Both pathways are similar and use general pathway previously described (ReceptorDorsal horn(spinal cord)medulla oblongata (brain stem)contralateral thalamuscerebral cortex)8.Thalamusa.Each side of thalamus controls sensation on contralateral side of bodyb.Information from parts of body are arranged somatopically (in groupsdermatomes)i.Referred pain (because of dermatomes)1.Origin of some nerves is from same area which controls different part of body2.Important for clinical diagnosis of some diseases or disorders3.Pain is good because it tells us that something is wrong in our body and sometimeswhat is wrong as wella.Myocardial infarctioni.Patient has problems in heart but have referred pain in retrosternalarea, left shoulder, left arm, left forearm, and last two fingers, andneck area (submandibular region), posterior region of left shoulderb.Pain in epigastric line (especially right side)i.Two problems1.Could be gall bladder stone or infection of liver2.Could be infection of right kidney9.Painnociceptiona.Receptorsi.Free nerve endings in skin, muscle, and viscerab.Neurotransmitteri.Substance P1.Pain relief is inhibition of substance P (opioids inhibit substance Prelieve pain)c.Fast and slow paini.Fast pain
1.Carried by group A-delta fibers2.Rapid onset and offset3.Well localizedii.Slow pain1.Carried by C fibers2.Aching, burning, or throbbing3.Poorly localized10. Two-Point Touch Thresholda.If each point touches receptive field of different sensory neuronsfeel both pointsb.If each point touches receptive field of a single sensory neuronfeels like one point11. Tastegustationa.Chemoreceptors on tongue detect tastetaste budsb.Types of tastei.Salt1.More sensitive on anterior lateral portion of tongue (side toward the front)2.From Na+ii.Sour1.More sensitive on lateral regions of tongue (sides of tongue)2.From protons (high acidicty)iii.Sweet1.More sensitive on anterior of tongue (tip of tongue)2.Involves G-protein coupled receptors – GPCR’siv.Bitter1.More sensitive at posterior of tongue (back/base of tongue)2.Uses GPCR’s which release gustducinthe G-protein is was coupled toc.Innervation of tonguei.Anterior two thirds (front two thirds)branch of Facial nerve (Cranial Nerve 7) calledChorda tympaniii.Posterior one third (back one third)Glossopharyngeal nerve (Cranial nerve 9)iii.Base of tongue (Epiglotis)Vagus nerve (Cranial nerve 10)d.Disordersi.Bell’s Palsyloss of taste1.Facial nerve under skin of face can get paralyzed. This means that the small branch ofthis nerve called the Chorda tympani is paralyzed. This causes taste disorder inpatient.ii.Ageusialoss of taste1.Etiology could be…a.Nerve problem such as in Bell’s palsyb.Irritation of tongue by foodc.Autoimmune disease of tongued.Tumor or cancer in tonguee.Damage of pathway fibers which take information to taste centerf.Glossitis – inflammation of tongueiii.Hypogeusiadecreases taste sensitivityiv.Hypergeusiaincreased taste sensitivityv.Glossodyniaburning sensation on the tongue

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Term
Winter
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