W ILLIAM S \u00c1NCHEZ 110 Grundys work 1987 about curriculum is based on Habermas

W illiam s ánchez 110 grundys work 1987 about

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W ILLIAM S ÁNCHEZ
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110 Grundy’s work (1987) about curriculum is based on Habermas about knowledge and interest relationships in social sciences. Schematically speaking, Habermas (1972), in Cohen et al (2002: 29), conceptualises that knowledge serves different interests, and those interests are socially constructed. Habermas identifies three kinds of interest: technical, practical and emancipatory. Depending on our cognitive interest, our aims and our forms of constructing knowledge vary. Based on the terminology used in the table, it is difficult to understand why the first second and third moment of applied linguistics and education could be associated with technical interest. However, it is important to remember that the most influential discipline in applied linguistics has been linguistics. Linguistic structuralism, both empiricism and cognitive strands, claims for scientific objective description of language realities. Generative grammar tries to discover the rules and principles that determine the properties of languages. Tollefson (1995:1) claims that until recently, the socio-political and economic contexts had not been included in the preparation of most language education and ESL teacher programs. As a result teachers and applied linguists could not establish links between educational practices and socio-political factors. In the preface of his book (p. ix) the author attributes a great responsibility in widening the gap between teachers, who are interested in pedagogy of language teaching and learning, and the researchers, who are interested in theories of language and society, to the development of applied linguistics as a distinct academic discipline. O N THE N ATURE OF A PPLIED L INGUISTICS Cognitive Aims Epistemology Curriculum Applied Linguistics interest Language Teaching Technical Prediction and Positivism and scientific style Controlled and controllable First, second and control Success Laws Uniform and Pre-determined third phase Rules purposes Theory driven Prediction Predictable purpose- Control oriented experiences Passive research objects Ordered Instrumental Experiences effectively knowledge organized Quantitative Outcome evaluation Approaches Practical Understanding Hermeneutic Styles Opening process Fourth phase And Interpretive methodologies Diverse Problem-driven interpretation Qualitative approaches Multidimensional strand Acting subjects Fluid Interacting and language Less monolithic power Meanings and intentions Problematic Relational Emancipatory Emancipation Ideology Critical Style Social emancipation Four phase and freedom Praxis (action informed Equity Critical by reflection) Democracy Applied linguistics Freedom Interwoven Individual and collective empowerment Table 2. Cognitive interests, epistemology, LT curriculum and AL
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111 In teaching practices we can associate with curriculum planned, organized and structured in advance, in general in a bureaucratic way and imposed in an institutional hierarchy (some design and make decisions and others implement). Curriculum planning is unidirectional:
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  • Fall '17
  • jane smith
  • Second language acquisition, Applied linguistics, Nature of Applied Linguistics

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