Horizontal 0 degrees at pole inclination latitude is

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Horizontal (0 degrees) at pole - Inclination (latitude) is recorded by iron-bearing minerals when they form in igneous rock - Hot spots and mantle plumes - Hot (lower density) material rising from lower mantle - Distance = Rate x Time - Rate = Distance / Time - Convergent Boundaries - Three types - Ocean - Ocean - Ocean - Continent - Continent - Continent - Where at least one plate is oceanic: - Oceanic plate sinks into the mantle - termed subduction - beneath overriding plate - Trench - subducting plate is bent downward - Ocean or subduction trenches - Accretionary wedge (or prism) - Where material on the surface of subducting plate gets is scraped off at edge or overrid- ing plate - Ocean - Ocean subduction
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- Volcanoes built on overriding oceanic plate - Creates a chain of volcanic islands - Volcanic island arc - Ocean - Continent convergence (Andes mountains) (Andean-type margins) - Thin and more dense oceanic crust subjects beneath continent - Volcanoes built on edge of continent - continental volcanic arc - Ex. Cascades: chain of volcanoes from Northern CA to Canadian border - Ancient Ex. Sierra Nevada: intrusive rocks that are the magma chambers that fed the con- tinental arc - CA coast ranges: accretionary wedge - Continent - Continent convergence - Begins as ocean - continent convergence - Ocean basin closes - continent enters subduction zone - Two continents collide (continental collision) - Collision causes crust to shorten in horizontal direction and therefore thickening in verti- cal direction - Crust gets shortened in horizontal direction and therefore thicker in vertical direction by combination of: - Thrust faulting - Folding (below) - Unsubductable material may get accreted to the edge of the overriding plate - ex. Appalachian mountains - Result of multiple collisions, orogenic events, and accretion - How and when did Florida become part of North America? - 470 mya - Florida not part of North America at this time (started between Africa and South America) - 385 mya - Florida not part of North America at this time - 180 mya - Africa starts to pull away from North America and leaves Florida - 170 Seafloor spreading. Gets wider and wider from this point on Transform Boundaries - Where plates slide past each other - Link segments of mid-ocean ridges and other boundaries - Topographic lines show where transform boundaries are -
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