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Sought sweeping transformations in defeated southoLeader in senate – Charles Sumner of Massachusetts oThaddeus StevensRadical republican leader in houseAdvocate of Freedmen’s political and economic rights°Radical reconstructionReconstruction act of 1867oDivided conquered south into 5 military districts oReadmission would happen after took necessary steps and ratified 14th°Impeachment of AJ 1868 not convicted by one vote°election of 1868 and 15thamendmentGrant – republican oSupported radical reconstruction And urged sectional reconciliation Grant vs. Seymour
°°TABLE 15.1 °13thamendment 1865prohibited slavery°civil rights act of 1866 defined citizenship rights of freedmen authorized federal authorities to bring suit against those who violated those rights°14thamendment 1866est. national citizenship for persons born or naturalized in USA prohibited states from depriving citizens of their civil rights or equal protection under law reduced state representation in house by percentage of adult male citizens denied the vote **reconstruction act 1867divided south into 5 military districts each under command of a union generalest. requirements for readmission of ex confederate states to the uniontenure of office act 1867required senate consent for removal of any federal official whose appointment had required senate confirmation°15thamendmentforbade states to deny citizens the right to vote on grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude°Ku Klux Klan act 1871Authorized president to use federal prosecutions and military force to suppress conspiracies to deprive citizens of the right to vote and enjoy the equal protection of the law°°Woman suffrage deniedSeneca falls 1848Minor v Happersett 1875The meaning of freedomVoting rightsEconomic autonomy°The quest for land°Freed slaves and northerners: conflicting goalWage labor and sharecroppingBy 1890 ¾ black farmers in south were tenants or sharecroppers Result = stagnant farm economy that blighted South’s future
South’s rural economy remained mired in widespread poverty and based on an uneasy compromise between landowners and laborers°Republican government in southBelief in time – blacks unfit to governSouthern republican party includedoformer Whigs oA few former democratsoBlack and white newcomers from north oSouthern blacksUnion leagueoSecret fraternal orderoBlacks and whitesoPowerful political association spread through former confederacy oPressured congress to uphold justice for freedmenEx confederatesoUnhappy with blacks becoming politically educatedoCalled southern whites scalawags oCalled northern whites carpetbaggersReading Two: Henretta 467 - 493First transcontinental railroad JobsMoney°RepublicansBelieved government intervention in economy = key to nation building Enjoyed decade of unparalleled federal powerGov. spending per person very high after civil warBelieved national economic integration was best guarantor of