Children who had been asked their names and where

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Children who had been asked their names and where they lived were less than half as likely to transgress as those who were left anonymous The transgression rate varied dramatically with the situation When they were deindividuated both by group immersion and by anonymity most children stole extra candy o Arousing and distracting activities Aggressive outbursts by large groups often are preceded by minor actions that arouse and divert people’s attention Hype people up and to reduce self-consciousness There is a self-reinforcing pleasure in acting impulsively While observing others doing likewise When we see others act as we are acting We think they feel as we do
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Which reinforces our own feelings (Orive, 1984) Impulsive group action absorbs our attention Seek deindividuating group experiences We can enjoy intense positive feelings and closeness to others - Diminished self-awareness o Group experiences that diminish self-consciousness tend to disconnect behavior from attitudes o Unself-conscious, deindividuated people (Diener, 1980; Prentice-Dunn & Rogers, 1980) Less restrained Less self-regulated More likely to act without thinking about their own values More responsive to the situation Opposite to self-awareness o Self-awareness People who are self-conscious Who are temporarily made so Exhibit greater consistency between their words outside a situation and their deeds in it Group polarization: Do groups intensify our opinions? - Discussion typically strengthens the average inclination of group members (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969) - Group-produced enhancement of members’ preexisting tendencies o A strengthening of the members’ average tendency o Not a split within the group - Subsequent to a group’s discussion, attitudes and beliefs become more extreme in the direction of the group’s position o e.g. after a discussion about racism, members of the group who are racist will defend their attitudes far more strongly than they would have beforehand - The case of the risky shift (Stoner, 1961) o Tested the commonly held belief that groups are more cautious than individuals o Posed decision dilemmas in which the participants’ task was to advise imagined characters how much risk to take o Group decisions were usually riskier o Risky shift occurs Not only when a group decides by consensus After a brief discussion, individuals will alter their decisions too o Not a consistent shift toward increased risk A tendency for group discussion to enhance group members’ initial leanings - Do groups intensify opinions?
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o Group polarization experiments To have people discuss attitude statements That most of them favored or most of them opposed Talking in groups enhance their shared initial inclinations as it did with the decision dilemmas In groups Risk takers take bigger risks Bigots become more hostile Givers become more generous To pick issues on which opinions are divided and then isolate people who hold the same view
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