The preamble of the udhr confirms that every

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The preamble of the UDHR confirms that “every individual and every organ of society” shall strive to promote respect for human rights and to “secure their universal and effective recognition and observance”; this extends to businesses, international and multilateral organisations, and other non-state actors. Why are ESCR important? The articulation of ESCR in international law followed long-term demands for these basic rights by people worldwide, and reflects concern for the life of every individual, particularly the most vulnerable, as expressed in many philosophical, religious and other traditions. In an era of increasing economic globalisation and growing inequality within and between states, there is an urgent need for grassroots groups, NGOs, academics, and other organisations and individuals to unite to recognise connections between continuing, localised struggles and to realise the human rights of all persons in practice. In understanding instances and patterns of poverty and deprivation as violations of ESCR – rather than mere misfortune, events outside human control, or the result of individual shortcomings – an obligation is placed on states and,
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increasingly, on corporations and other non-state actors, to prevent and address such situations. Around the world, the ESCR framework is used to bolster actions for justice and against oppression, and amplify progressive alternatives to enhance the enjoyment of ESCR. Activists have brought legal cases before UN treaty bodies, courts and other dispute resolution bodies to demand change, documented and publicised recurring violations, mobilised communities, developed legislation, analysed domestic budgets and international trade agreements to ensure compliance with human rights, and built solidarity and networks between communities locally and across the globe. ESCR unite women and men, migrants and indigenous people, youth and elders, of all races, religions, political orientations, and economic and social backgrounds, in a common realisation of universal human freedom and dignity. Convention against Torture The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Convention against Torture) was adopted in 1984 and entered into force in 1987. The Convention against Torture is the most comprehensive international treaty dealing with torture. The Committee against Torture monitors its implementation by States. 1. The Convention against Torture sets out a definition of torture . 2. The Convention against Torture obliges States to take preventive measures.
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According to article 2 of the Convention, each State Party has an obligation to take all necessary measures to prevent acts of torture. This includes legislative, administrative and judicial measures, as well as any other measures that may be appropriate. States are also obliged to prevent other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in article 16.
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