Association that therefore it is not right to prevent

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association that therefore it is not right to prevent public rallies held by some individuals or group in the country, the fallacy would have been committed. This is because although the constitution may quarantee the freedom of movement and association there are certain conditions and assumptions under which such guarantee holds, conditions and assumptions which may into hold in a particular instance thus rendering the application of the general provision of the constitution inappropriate. For example association and movement with the objective of committing crime and disturbing the peace renders such constitutional guarantees inapplicable. (h) Fallacy of converse Accident The explanation of this fallacy is just the converse of that of the presiding. It proceeds by an inappropriate ascription of what holds for particular unique case to the general cases which do not experience the same and unique circumstances that the particular experiences that renders or justifies whatever it is that holds for the unique particular. For example reasoning that since cigarette smoking increases the chances of suffering from cancer by pred isp osed or vulnerable individuals that then cigarette smoking should be stopped or baned altogether. Hitherto, the various examples discussed are sufficient to illustrate fallacies of relevance/irrelevance. However, it is imperative to appreciate that the examples provided are not exhaustive since there are many more examples of such fallacies which may be seen in the references provided at the end of this lesson. ii. Fallacies of Ambiguity (a) Fallacy of Equivocation: This fallacy arises from making a conclusion in an argument, which has an ambiguous word, or a word whose exact understanding is not clear. E.g. 1. Men are the only rational creatures 2. No woman are men 3. Therefore, no women are rational. There is no certain or clear connection between the two propositions (1,2) i.e., actually there is 'almost' no middle term. This cannot be detected by an evaluation of the form or structure of the argument since this seems to present 'men' as the middle term although in evaluating the actual content of the argument, 'men' has or at least seems to have been used in two senses, in the first sense meaning all humanity (men and women) and in the second sense meaning male human beings only. When reasoning proceeds in this way where a word is used with varying meanings in the same argument and a conclusion is drawn as if the word were used unequivocally, then the fallacy of equivocation is said to have been committee (b) Fallacy of Amphibly This fallacy is committed when a reasoning is instance contains a statement that could be understood or integrated in more than one senses and a conclusion is drawn as if the statement or phrase had a definite understanding or meaning. The worlds contained in the statement or phrase may not be ambiguous, yet the whole sentence is because of its
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grammatical structure. A common source of confusion in ordinary English stems for example from the use of the word 'not'. A sentence that begins as 'All … are not …" may be
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