People in different environments use culture to adapt

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People in different environments use culture to adapt to the environment and meet their needs such as food, shelter, safety Diversity in culture reflects a diversity in environments and the opportunities and challenges of those environments Dynamic balance between the environment and the ecosystem with the needs of the population o Tsembaga example "fighting and feasting" Cultural Evolution Convergent evolution: people with different ancestral cultures developing similar cultural practices, technologies or ways of life when placed in similar environmental conditions o Comanche, Cheyenne and Lakota example Parallel evolution: people with similar ancestral cultures developing similar cultural practices, technologies or ways of life when placed in similar environment conditions Two general modes of subsistence 1. Food foraging societies (hunter gatherers) a. Mobile b. Exploit resources within a set range c. Small groups through extended breastfeeding and fission i. Do not exceed carrying capacity ii. Avoid conflict d. Flexible division of labor i. Males typically hunt for meat—provide about 30% of the food ii. Women typically forage for plants/nuts-- provide about 70% of the food e. Food sharing and communal property f. Egalitarian 2. Food producing societies (agriculture and pastoralism) a. Neolithic revolution (about 10,000 years ago) b. Domestication of crops and sedentary living c. Use of new technology
d. Horticulture or food gardens i. Swidden (slash and burn cultivation) e. Agriculture i. Prepared and maintained fixed areas of food production ii. Allows for job specialization (not everyone has to grow food) and complex societal organization iii. Has become mostly industrialized iv. "technology treadmill," food waste, and environmental pressures Animal Breeding Pastoralism: herding of grazing animals such as goats, cows, sheep, llamas, and camels Often nomadic or migratory Bakhtiari Herders example o Migrate seasonally o Don't amass many physical belongings o Housing is transportable o Men own and control the animals (primary property) and therefore have more economic and political power *** economics often influence patterns of labor and gender relations Economic and Social Relations Economic systems are cultural systems and as such reflect culture Example of Yams for the Trobriand Islanders o Form of currency o Mark of prestige and wealth-feasting o Sign of social support and insurance creating ties of obligation or debt o Yams are given meaning and value specific to that culture Resources, Technology and Labor Natural resources (land and water) may be communal or divided by right o Watering holes, grazing and farming land o Cattle wars and barbed wire in the West Labor resources o Cooperative vs. Task specialization (particularly in complex societies) o Division by age: children, adults, elderly o Division by gender Flexible integrated Segregated Dual sex configuration Reciprocity Exchange of goods and services of roughly equal value between two parties

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