Exam One Study Guide - Microbio.docx

Building blocks fatty acids o example waxes and

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Building blocks: fatty acids o Example: waxes and hormones o Function: structure o Location in cell: cell membrane Proteins: o Building blocks: amino acids o Example: polypeptide o Function: regulate what goes in and out, make up enzymes/transport proteins o Location in cell: ribosomes Nucleic Acid: o Building blocks: nucleotides o Example: DNA and RNA o Function: make up genetic information o Location in cell: DNA: nucleus RNA: cytoplasm 53. Name a compound used as solidifying agent is culture media Agar
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54. Compare pili and flagella structure and function. Where in the cell can one find them? Pili: o normally shorter, straighter, and thinner than flagella and only one or two present in a cell. o Used in twitching and gliding motility o Found distributed around the cell membrane Flagella: o Long filamentous appendages o Used to propel bacteria o Can be peritrichous (distributed over the entire cell) or polar (only at the ends) 55. What the cell wall, cell membrane, and ribosome of bacteria are made of? What are their functions in the cell? Cell wall: peptidoglycan o Function: structure and to keep the cell from bursting Cell membrane: phospholipids o Function: selective barrier Ribosomes: proteins and RNA o Function: protein synthesis 56. What is the significance of acid-fast staining procedure? Acid-fast staining: differential o Bind strongly to bacteria with waxy cell walls. o Used to identify bacteria that are not decolorized by acid-alcohol. o Used to identify all bacteria in the genus Mycobacterium and some bacterial strains of the genus Nocardia. 57. Describe different forms of symbiosis; mutualism, commensalism, parasitism. Mutualism: both organisms or populations are benefited. Commensalism: two organisms live in association and one is benefited while the other is neither benefited nor harmed Parasitism: one organism (the parasite) exploits another organism (the host) without providing any benefit in return 58. What are Steroids; Give two examples Steroids: a specific group of lipids containing four rings arranged in a particular molecular configuration. o Ex: Cholesterol and testosterone. 59. Movement of materials across the cell membrane; Compare active vs passive processes. Passive process: movement of molecules across a cell membrane from high concentration to low concentration. Does not require ATP. o Down the gradient; High Low
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Active process: movement of molecules across a cell membrane from low concentration to high concentration. Requires ATP. o Against the gradient; Low High 60. Briefly compare catabolic and anabolic reactions. Page 110 Catabolic reactions: break down macromolecules into simpler parts. o Releases energy. Anabolic reactions: build up macromolecules by combining simpler molecules. o Uses energy
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