B skinners analysis of operant conditioning

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B. Skinner’s Analysis of Operant Conditioning:  - Definition : this is a type of learning in which behavior is influenced by the consequences that follow it.  - Skinner Box:  a special chamber used to study operant condition experimentally. - Consequences: 1. Reinforcement : a response is strengthened by an outcome that follows it.   2. Punishment : occurs when a response is weakened by outcomes that follow it.  - Darwin’s notion of natural selection, which applies to species adaption, Skinner viewed operant  conditioning as a type of natural selection that facilitates an organism’s personal adaption to the  environment - Contingency : the relation between the behavior and the consequence.  3. Distinguishing Operant from Classical Conditioning CC OC Type of Behavior Elicited (involuntary) Emitted (Voluntary) How to learn CS-UCS pairing Reinforcing, punishing What is the sequence CS before CR  Consequence follow a response  (food given after lever pressed)  C. Antecedent Conditions: Identifying When to Respond - Discriminative Stimulus, a signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences.  D. Consequences: Determining how to respond Process Behavior Consequence Result
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Reinforcement + positive Rat presses a lever Food is given Lever pressing  -negative Taking pill Headache gone Taking pill for pain Operant Extinction Rat Presses a lever No food No lever pressing Punishment +positive (Averse) Two people fight  for a toy Scold and spank No fighting  (decreases) -negative (Response Cost) No TV for 1 week No fighting - Primary reinforcers : stimuli, such as food and water, that an organism naturally finds reinforcing  because they satisfy biological needs.  - Secondary reinforcers : stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through their association with  primary reinforce.  - Immediate Delayed, and Reciprocal Consequences  Drug: immediate pleasure  Smoke: Removal of unpleasant stress E. Shaping and Chaining: Taking One step at a time - Shaping : (method of successive approximations): involves reinforcing successive approximations toward  a final response. (Remember how we shape Dr. Day’s behavior?)  - Chaining : is used to develop a sequence of responses by reinforcing each response with the opportunity  to perform the next response Example: When the light is on, a rat presses a lever to rcv a food. Accidentally, a rat happens to ring  a bell, and the light is on. The rat automatically goes to push the lever, and rcv food.  F.
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