A spellbinding speaker Malcolm preached a philosophy of militant separatism

A spellbinding speaker malcolm preached a philosophy

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The most charismatic Black Muslim was Malcolm X. A spellbinding speaker, Malcolm preached a philosophy of militant separatism, although he advocated violence only for self-defense. Hostile to mainstream civil rights organizations, he caustically referred to the 1963 March on Washington as the “Farce on Washington.” Malcolm said plainly, “I believe in the brotherhood of man, all men, but I don’t believe in brotherhood with anyone who doesn’t want brotherhood with me.” He had little interest in changing the minds of hostile white. Strengthening the black community, he believed, represented a surer path to freedom and equality. In 1964, after a power struggle with founder Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm broke with the Nation of Islam. While he remained a black nationalist, he moderated his anti white views and began to talk of a class struggle uniting poor whites and blacks. Following an inspiring trip to the Middle East, where he saw Muslims of all races worshipping together, Malcolm formed the organization of Afro-American Unity to promote black pride and to work with traditional civil rights groups. But he got no further, On February 21, 1965, He was assassinated while delivering a speech in Harlem. Three black muslims were convicted of his murder. (Page 872 Kasey Galt) Elijah Muhammed- Founder of the nation of Islam and in 1964 had a power struggle with Malcolm. (page 872 Kasey Galt) “Black power”- A more secular brand of black nationalism emerged in 1966 when SNCC and CORE activists, following the lead of Stokely Carmichael began to call for black self-reliance under the banner of Black Power. Advocates of Black Power asked fundamental questions: If alliances with whites were necessary to achieve racial justice, as King believed they were, did that make African Americans dependent on the good intentions of whites? If so, could block people trust those good intentions in the long run? Increasingly, those inclined toward Black Power believed that African Americans should build economic and political power in their own communities. Such power would translate into a less dependent relationship with white America. “For once,” Carmichael write,”black people are going to use the words they want to use-not the words whites want to hear.”
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Spurred by the Black Power slogan, African American activists turned their attention to the poverty and social injustice faced by so many black people. President Johnson had declared the war on poverty, and black organizers joined, setting up day care centers, running community job training programs, and working to improve housing and health care in the inner cities. In major cities such as Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, and Pittsburgh, activists sought to open jobs in police and fire departments and in construction and transportation to black workers, who had been excluded from these occupations for decades. Others worked to end police harassment—a major problem in urban black communities—and to help black entrepreneurs to receive small-business loans. CORE leader Floyd McKissick explained, “Black Power is not Black Supremacy; it is a united Black Voice reflecting
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