o Metabolic syndrome- a cluster of risk factors. Factors that can influence the chance of developing obesity include o Genetics o Physiology o Overweight and obesity in childhood o Social factors o Physical factors such as thyroid levels, or use of certain prescription medications. Chronic diseases linked to obesity include: o Hypertension o Dyslipidemia High triglycerides High LDL-cholesterol Low HDL o Type-2 Diabetes o Heart disease o Stroke o Gallbladder disease o Certain cancers
o Depression o Cognitive decline Treatments for obesity may include: o Low-calorie diet and regular exercise o Lifestyle changes o Prescription medications o Surgery Gastroplasty Gastric bypass Gastric banding. In Depth: Alcohol Not a nutrient Does contribute kcal to the diet- 7 kcal to the diet Proof is a measurement of alcohol content Most common cause of nutritional deficiencies. Three types: o Beer- grain, malt, hops, yeast, and water o Wine- grapes, berries, and fruits o Distilled spirits/hard liquor- corn, potatoes, sugar cane, malts/ grains What is moderate alcohol intake? o A drink is defined as the amount of beverage that provides ½ fluid ounce of pure alcohol o Up to one drink per day for women o Up to two drinks per day for men o 1 drink= mixed drink with 1.5 fl oz or about 1 shot of 80-proof liquor (vodka, gin, scotch, bourbon, brandy, or rum) o 4-5 fl oz (a glass) of wine o 12 fl of beer Prevents Heart Disease o Healthy in moderate consumption (1-2 drins) o Decreases clotting and increases HDL o No beefit to more alcohol o Red wine and dark beers have phytochemicals Polyphenolics (catechin and resveratrol). o Stress and anxiety reduction o Appetite improvement o Lower rates of heart disease o Possible lower risks for diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and liver disease. Concerns about moderate alcohol intake include: o Women appear to be at higher risk for breast cancer o Increased risk for hypertension o Higher rates of bleeding in the brain
o Relatively high calorie content o Potential risk for adverse drug interactions Alcohol Hazards o Irritant to stomach and pancreas o Dehydrates o Displaces nutrients from diet o Toxic to liver o Teratogen (fetal alcohol syndrome). Type of Alcohol abuse o Alcohol abuse is excessive intake of alcohol o Binge drinking is consumption of five or more drinks per occasion o Alcoholism is a disease characterized by chronic dependence on alcohol.