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Vital capacity the amount of air you can breathe in

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Vital capacity: the amount of air you can breathe inFEV- total amount a person can blow out on forcedexhalationFEV1 is the volume of air that can forcibly be blownout in one second, after full inspiration. Averagevalues for FEV1 in healthy people depend mainly onsex and age. Values of between 80% and 120% of theaverage value are considered normal. The less blownout in one second, the more that remains trapped!FVC-Forced vital capacity is the volume of air that canforcibly be blown out after full inspiration, ismeasured in liters. FVC is the most basic maneuver inspirometry tests.FEV1/FVC is the ratio of FEV1to FVC. In healthy adultsthis should be approximately 75–80%. In obstructive diseases (asthma, COPD, chronic bronchitis,emphysema) FEV1is diminished because of increased airway resistance to expiratory flow; theFVC may be decreased as well, due to the premature closure of airway in expiration.Chronic Airflow LimitationsChronic lung diseases with chronic airflow limitation include:AsthmaAsthma, like chronic bronchitis, is a disease of the airways. Obstruction to theflow of air is due to inflammation of the airways as well as spasm of musclessurrounding the airways in asthma. The narrowing that results from spasm ofthe muscles is called bronchospasm. Generally, bronchospasm in asthma isreversible and subsides spontaneously or with the use of bronchodilators(medications that relax the muscles surrounding the airways). We now knowthat a major component of asthma is inflammation of the airways, and thisinflammation causes thickening of the walls of the airways.
Chronic bronchitis “Blue Bloaters”Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and swelling of the lining of theairways that leads to narrowing and obstruction of the airways. Theinflammation also stimulates production of mucous (sputum), which can causefurther obstruction of the airways. Obstruction of the airways, especially withmucus, increases the likelihood of bacterial lung infections. Chronic bronchitisusually is defined clinically as adaily coughwith production of sputum for threemonths, two years in a row. The bloating is from the effects of the lung diseaseon the heart which causes right sided heart failure. A person will not be able tofully exhale the air taken in, so when they breathe in again this increases the airvolume even more, which leads to hyperinflation. They have low blood levelsand high carbon dioxide levels, and therefore will become cyanotic because ofthe decreased oxygen levelCompensation: body increases RBC production, and causes a shift ofblood elsewhere which increases the pressure in the pulmonary arterycausing pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension leads to rightsided heart failure (which is why we see bloating, edema in abdomenand legs)Pulmonary emphysema (pink puffers)There is permanent enlargement of the alveoli due to the destruction of thewalls between alveoli inemphysema

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Term
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