Physical gate length nm expected manufacturing year

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Physical gate length, nm Expected manufacturing year 2005 2008 2011 2013 ITRS edition 5 years Note the rapid 3- and then 5-year shifts in ITRS projections for physical gate lengths. 3 years
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6 Why Is Moore’s Law Confused with Performance? • Its not because of parallelism – for most of its life, Moore’s Law and single processor performance correlated well • The reason is the size and speed are related – the smaller something is, the quicker it can be changed Thus, smaller transistors can switch at higher speeds
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7 Clock Speed History
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8 Dennard Scaling • Why haven’t clock speeds increased, even though transistors have continued to shrink? • Dennard (1974) observed that voltage and current should be proportional to the linear dimensions of a transistor Thus, as transistors shrank, so did necessary voltage and current; power is proportional to the area of the transistor.
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9 Dennard Scaling • Power = alpha * CFV 2 Alpha – percent time switched C = capacitance F = frequency V = voltage • Capacitance is related to area So, as the size of the transistors shrunk, and the voltage was reduced, circuits could operate at higher frequencies at the same power
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10 End of Dennard Scaling • Dennard scaling ignored the
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  • Spring '17
  • Junaid Haroon
  • Hertz, Clock rate, Central processing unit, Dennard Scaling

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