Pass laws made to segregate population in south

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Pass laws- Made to segregate population in South Africa and restrict movement of non-whites Started because laborers constantly moved to employers who offered higher wages; they wouldn’t accept a long term contract with any single employer. Thus, there was a constant shortage of labor, which caused a huge strain on the employers. Black labour was too expensive for white employers; it constituted 86 percent of a digger’s working costs. Other issues: Laborers understood danger of working in mines, many deserted without taking leave, laborers understood they could make more by stealing one diamond than they could by working for a week. Pass laws first started in 1872 In Kimberly, law that all Black laborers had to register on arrival to area, so they could be issued a pass allowing them to find employment. Laborers needed to work for at least three months; needed to obtain other pass on leaving fields, to show they had fulfilled employer’s contractual obligations. Also, employers that tried to hire workers outside of the register’s office could fined 10 pounds and imprisoned for three months. A month later, new law instituted that workers had to carry certificate on them at all times. If they were caught without one, and if they weren’t able to “give a satisfactory account of [them]selves, they were liable for arrest, imprisonment, fines, or a lashing. The pass laws virtually introduced apartheid. Later, in 1950, Men and women forced to carry passes in South Africa so migration could be policed Anglo-Boer War The Anglo-Boer War was fought between the English colonists and the Dutch “Boer” settlers (Afrikaners) in South Africa from 1889-1902 Due to the discovery of gold in the heartland, the British encroached on Afrikaner territory – resulted in the outbreak of war War eventually disintegrated into guerilla tactics – English colonists won, Dutch Afrikaners lost independence and their provinces became part of South African empire Represents how European imperialism did not just apply to African people, European settlers in Africa also were the victims Herero Rebellion
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The Herero Rebellion was an uprising in German South West Africa in 1904 by the native Herero people Harsh debt collection and land seizures by the Germans caused revolt German troops forced the Herero into the desert killing men, women and children, sealed off the entrance back into the empire and would not allow them to return Tens of thousands of Herero died in the desert, shows forcible and malicious military action against Africans Sir Frederick Lugard British soldier and explorer who served as governor of Nigeria in the early 20 th century Unified two British protectorates to create one colony of Nigeria Dual Mandate – Lugard’s work discussing why British should colonize and how to do so effectively Pushed for indirect, native rule in Africa – believed that Africans would be more
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