aware that the leaders of organisations that seek to defend human rights in Russia have not been in the habit of seeking broad public support (Volkov 2011: 39), as they say that in an earlier period their country’s political leaders paid more attention to them, and they could rely on foreign sources for financial support. More fundamentally, contemporary Russian dissidents are the heirs of the tradition of the members of the Russian intelligentsia under the tsars and under the Soviet regime, who took pride in the authenticity of their ideals, and had no desire to build ties with the majority of the population, since it was important for the intelligentsia that their norms distinguished them from the masses in Russia (Mendelson and Gerber 2007: 51, 57). Fortunately, in recent years there have been signs that some of the leaders of social organisations that strive for change recognise the need to achieve rapport with wide circles of the public, and have focused on issues that have the potential to evoke support from many average citizens. Whether that tendency will broaden is a crucial question for the future of civil society and protest movements in Russia. References Alekseeva, Olga. 2010. Commentary on Jakobson and Sanovich: The Challenging Landscape of the Russian Third Sector. Journal of Civil Society , 6(3), 307-311. Barabanov, Il’ia, and Iana Rozhdestvenskaia. 2013. Reaktsiia na reaktsiiu. Kommersant vlast’ , October 21. 28
Bekbulatova, T. 2013. Golosu dostalsia prezidentskii grant. Kommersant , December 4. Bode, Nicole, and Andrey Makarychev. 2013. The New Social Media in Russia: Political Blogging by the Government and the Opposition. Problems of Post-Communism 60 (2), 53-62. Chebankova, Elena. 2013. Civil Society in Putin’s Russia. New York: Routledge. Crotty, Jo. 2009. Making a Difference? NGOs and Civil Society Development in Russia. 2013. From Economic Crisis to Political Crisis: Changing Middle Class Attitudes in Moscow and St. Petersburg, 2008-2012. Institute of Modern Russia, , November 19. Doronina, Ol’ga. 2013. Russia’s Regions Go Back to the Streets to Protest. Russia Beyond the Headlines, March 12; in Johnson’s Russia List, 2013, no. 46, March 13. Epifanova, Mariia. 2013. Koordinatsionnyi sovet teriaet liudei. Novaia gazeta , October 23. Evans, Alfred B., Jr. 2006. Vladimir Putin’s Design for Civil Society, in Russian Civil Society: A Critical Assessment , edited by A. Evans, L. Henry, and L. McIntosh Sundstrom 147- 158. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. Evans, Alfred B., Jr. 2008. The First Steps of Russia’s Public Chamber: Representation or Coordination. Demokratizatsiya , 16 (4), 345-362. Evans, Alfred B., Jr. 2012. Protests and Civil Society in Russia: The Struggle for the Khimki Forest. Communist and Post-Communist Studies , 45(3-4), 233-242. Evans, Alfred B., Jr. 2013. Civil Society and Protest, in Return to Putin’s Russia: Past Imperfect, Future Uncertain , Fifth Edition, edited by Stephen K. Wegren 103-124.
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