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00:00:52 For one group of Americans, however, it wouldn't have mattered if the homes has cost a dollar or a million dollars. They faced discrimination in housing, employment, and in other areas. African-Americans were not allowed to purchase homes in segregated suburbs, 00:01:08 such as the Levittowns nor could Levittown owners resell their homes to African-Americans, since this was barred in their sales contracts. Levittown provides just one example of the type of treatment that African-Americans and other minority groups endured during the 1950s. When white Americans moved out to the suburbs, minorities were left behind to deal with the problems found 00:01:34
in the decaying inner cities. Section 10 00:00:00 TEACHER: The segregation and discrimination faced by African-Americans in the 1950s had been in place in the United States since its founding. But major changes were brewing. President Truman's integration of the armed forces was one of the first significant steps in this direction. Court cases challenging the legality of these practices 00:00:25 began making their way to the Supreme Court. And people of all races began marching and speaking in favor of equal rights for minorities. This movement was known as the Civil Rights Movement. And it reached its peak during the 1960s. Section 11 00:00:00 TEACHER: How did America experience economic and social change in the 1950s? The booming postwar economy led to the growth of suburbs and the decline of cities. Many white Americans were able to achieve the "American dream" after the hardship and sacrifice of the Great Depression and World War II. 00:00:19 This dream often consisted of owning a home in the suburbs and having a car or two in the garage. Now let's learn a little more about how culture changed during this time period and what role new technologies had to play in those changes. Section 12 00:00:00 TEACHER: Wartime research led to amazing new scientific advances in the postwar years. One of the most far reaching developments was the transistor, a tiny device for creating electrical signals. Transistors made inventions such as the hearing aid, radio, and computer memory chips possible. 00:00:21 Computers and nuclear power were also developed during the 1950s. The technology that made them possible led to innovations such as the microwave and nuclear power plants. This picture shows employees at the US Census Bureau looking at data using one of the agency's computers. 00:00:41 The television was invented in the 1920s, but manufacturers did not mass produce TVs until the 1950s. Americans flocked to buy the spectacular new technology. As a result, TV sales shot upward at a phenomenal rate. For their new suburban homes, Americans wanted not only televisions, but they also wanted new products such as dishwashers and stereos. And the number of telephones in use 00:01:13 also nearly doubled during the decade of the 1950s, from 43 million in 1950 to 74 million in 1960. In the early years, Jonas Salk developed a vaccine for polio. Since that time, vaccine science has made amazing strides. Physician and researcher Jonas Salk first tested his vaccine