They perform more processing on each message than

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They perform more processing on each message than bridges and therefore operate more slowly.
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Hub, Switch, & Router Explained - What's the difference? Click the learn the difference What is the Purpose of a Router?
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Network Adapters Computers have network adapters, also known as Network Interface Cards (NICs), that allow them to connect to networks NICs via wires or wireless signals Wired adapters feature an RJ45 port Wireless adapters feature an antenna and connect to networks using Wireless Access Points (WAPs) (Access Points APs)
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Ethernet Cables Ethernet cables are made of copper wires Transmit data in the form of electrical pulses Wireless connections rely on different technologies RJ45 PLUG
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Ethernet Cables WAPs provide a central point of access for devices that want to connect to a Local Area Network (LAN) Wireless networks can consist of many types of devices other than traditional PCs: Smart phones PDAs Tablet computers Micro computers PCs and laptops equipped with wireless network adapters can connect to these networks as well
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Data Transfer on a LAN
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Data Transfer Packet A unit of data sent across a network Router A network device that directs a packet between networks toward its final destination Packet switching Messages are divided into fixed-sized, numbered packets; packets are individually routed to their destination, then reassembled
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Packet Switching Take a message, break it into three packets, and simulate this process
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Packet Switching
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Data transfer in LANs - Sending Before data is transferred, it has to go through the following process: 1. Large chunks of data are broken into segments 2. Addressing information is added to each segment, making it a packet 3. Packets then travel to the network adapter, where a little more information is added and they become Ethernet frames . 4. Each frame is then broken into a data stream of bits 0s and 1s that travel over physical media Frame Packet IP Address MAC Address
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Data transfer in LANs - Receiving When data is received, it goes through the process in reverse: 1. The receiving computer reassembles the bits into an Ethernet frame 2. It removes the frame information, and checks the packet information to make sure it was the intended recipient 3. The packet information is then stripped, and the data segment is reassembled into the file that we click on in Windows Explorer Frame Packet
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How does data know where to go? Most every computer and many other devices have an Internet Protocol (IP) address Uniquely identifies a device and its associated network A typical example of an IPv4 address would be 192.168.1.1 Every IP address is broken down into two parts by a subnet mask Network ID 192.168.1 Host ID 1
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Subnet Mask A group of four numbers that define a computer’s network NOTE: All of the 255s in a subnet mask collectively refer to the network portion, whereas the 0s refer to the host portion Type of Address First Octet Second Octet Third Octet Fourth Octet IP Address 192 168 1 1 Subnet Mask 255 255 255 0
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Routers, Switches, Packets and Frames
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Types of Local Area Networks
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Wired LANs (WLANs) Hosts, such as PCs or laptops, are connected to central connecting devices by copper-based twisted pair cabling
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Wired LANs (WLANs) Hosts connect to networks through WAPs
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