Thus where states met with uncertainty and as

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prerequisite of European integration. Thus where states met with uncertainty, and as supranational institutions began to develop agendas of their own, national governments would respond by going their own way. 9. What is confederalism? Confederation may be viewed as a particular type of intergovernmental arrangement, in which national sovereignty remains intact despite the establishment of common institutional framework. O’ Neill calls it the antithesis of federalism, a concert of sovereign states. 10. What is the distinction between integovermentalism and confederalism? Confederation is a helpful supplement to intergovernmentalism, allowing us to move beyond its inherent constraints, while retaining its state-centric core. In this respect, Wallace points to the importance of supranational/ international law in differentiating confederalism from intergovernmentalism.Taylor puts it rather differently. He suggests that , ‘the salient featue of confederal Europe is that the scope of integration is extensive…but the level of integration is low. Moreover the Europe of this Confederal phase of integration is decentralized but highly interdependent, potentially autarchic in practice united by intense of practices of consultation’. It also characterized, he claims, by the defensive posture of national governments against the further extension of the powers of supranational actors, by an interpenetration of European politics into the domestic sphere, and by an oscillation between advanced proposals for integration and retreats into national independence. Much of this argument is state-centric, with Taylor arguing that the nation state is likely to be strengthened through confederation. The stat-
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centric nature of the argument adds to integevernmentalist understandings of European integration by characterizing the framework within which cooperation and integration take place. 11. What is neo-liberalism interested in? ideology and policy model that emphasizes the value of free market competition. Although there is considerable debate as to the defining features of neoliberal thought and practice, it is most commonly associated with laissez-faire economics . In particular, neoliberalism is often characterized in terms of its belief in sustained economic growth as the means to achieve human progress, its confidence in free markets as the most-efficient allocation of resources, its emphasis on minimal state intervention in economic and social affairs, and its commitment to the freedom of trade and capital. 12. What is the difference between neo-realism and neo-liberalism?
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