Grasping reflex 162 CHAPTER 5 Motor Sensory and Perceptual Development go down

Grasping reflex 162 chapter 5 motor sensory and

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Grasping reflex
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162 CHAPTER 5 Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development go down the steep slopes or going down backward in a cautious manner. Experienced walkers perceptually assessed the situation—looking, swaying, touching, and thinking before they moved down the slope. With experience, both the crawlers and the walkers learned to avoid the risky slopes where they would fall, integrating perceptual information with the devel- opment of a new motor behavior. In this research, we again see the importance of perceptual- motor coupling in the development of motor skills. Th us, practice is very important in the development of new motor skills (Adolph & Berger, 2013; Adolph & Robinson, 2013). In a recent study, Adolph and her colleagues (2012) observed 12- to 19-month-olds during free play. Locomotor experience was extensive, with the infants averaging 2,368 steps and 17 falls per hour. The First Year: Motor Development Milestones and Variations Figure 5.3 summarizes important accomplishments in gross motor skills during the first year, culminat- ing in the ability to walk easily. The timing of these milestones, especially the later ones, may vary by as much as two to four months, and experiences can modify the onset of these accom- plishments (Adolph & Berger, 2013). For example, in the early 1990s, pediatricians began recommending that parents place their babies on their backs when they sleep. Following that instruction, babies who back-sleep began crawling later, typically several weeks later than babies who slept prone (Davis & others, 1998). Also, some infants do not follow the standard sequence of motor accomplishments (Eaton, 2008). For example, many American infants never crawl on their belly or on their hands and knees. They may discover an idiosyncratic form of locomotion before walking, such as rolling, or they might never locomote until they get upright (Adolph & Robinson, 2013). In Jamaica, approximately one-fourth of babies skip crawling (Hopkins, 1991). According to Karen Adolph and Sarah Berger (2005), the early view that growth and motor development simply reflect the age-related output of maturation is, at best, incomplete. Rather, infants develop new skills with the guidance of their caregivers in a real-world envi- ronment of objects, surfaces, and planes. Development in the Second Year The motor accomplishments of the first year bring increasing independence, allowing infants to explore their environment more extensively and to initiate interaction with others more readily. In the second year of life, toddlers become more motorically skilled and mobile. Motor activity during the second year is vital to the child’s competent development and few restrictions, except for safety, should be placed on their adventures. By 13 to 18 months, toddlers can pull a toy attached to a string and use their hands and legs to climb up a number of steps. By 18 to 24 months, toddlers can walk quickly or run stiffl y for a short distance, balance on their feet in a squatting position while playing with
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