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Formal groups fulfill 2 basic functions: organizational and individual-individual functions: satisfy individuals need for affiliation, develop/confirm individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity, give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions ofsocial reality, reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness, provide a problem-solving mechanism for social and interpersonal problems -organizational functions: accomplish complex tasks beyond capabilities of individuals, generate new ideas/solutions, coordinate interdependent efforts, provide problem-solving mechanism for complex problems, implement complex decisions, socialize and train newcomers (Ad Hoc groups – ex, Houston Task Force) The Group Development ProcessWorkplace goes through a maturation processTuckman’s 5- Stage Theory of group/team development: -as we move from groups to teams, we start As independents and come together to “form”No stage has the same duration or intensity. Ex. The norming stage can be nonexistent or painfully long, depending on goal clarity and commitment and maturity of the members. Forming: Group members tend to be uncertain and anxious about such things as their roles, whois in charge, and the group’s goals. Mutual trust is low, and a good deal of holding back to see who takes charge and how If formal leader doesn’t assert authority an emergent leader will eventually step in to fulfill group’s need for leadership and direction INDEPENDENCE Leadership changes can happen laterStormingIndividuals test leader’s policies and assumptions as they try to determine how they fit into power structureDefine responsibilities, how work together Subgroups take shape, and subtle forms of rebellion, such as procrastination, occur – conflicts Many groups stall in stage 2 because power politics erupt into open rebellion8
NormingGroups that make it through stage 2 do so because a respected member other than the leader challenges the group to resolve its power struggles so something can be accomplished Understanding of taskFeeling of team spirit is experienced because members believe they have found their proper roles DEPENDENCE/INTERDEPENDECE Group cohesiveness: A “We feeling” binding group members together= principal by-product of stage 3Performing-productive stage when team begins to see significant payoffs from their shared history and the work norms they have developedAdjourning -team members must make the transition from becoming part of a cohesive team to enlarging their network and sharing their knowledge gained from the experience (leave group/team) -RETURN TO INDEPENDENCE