Individual best understood only in context of political regime When Aristotle

Individual best understood only in context of

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Individual best understood only in context of political regime When Aristotle talks about political regime he talks about monarchy (rule by one man for the common good) aristocracy (rule by a few for the common good) Polity (rule by the many for the common good) Assumption of inequality: only some are fit to rule, others fit to serve Politics ideally oriented towards the good life (eudaimonia): Aristotle says that it means “doing and living well.” virtue, knowledge, human flourishing requires everyone to play his/her own role Citizen is someone who participates in giving judgment Comparison of types of constitutions, number and quality (correct or deviant) Monarchy / tyranny Aristocracy / oligarchy Democracy / polity CG (Correct) PA(deviant) One Monarchy/kingship tyranny Few aristocracy oligarchy Many polity Democracy Cicero
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Comparison of types of constitutions (compare to Aristotle): Cicero saw three natural governments like Aristotle, however, he does not see democracy as the devolved form of the constitutionalism. He prefers a mixture of all three forms of government. Monarchy/tyranny- Aristocracy/oligarchy- Democracy- believed that there’s political liberty= gate away to truth, beauty and happiness Equality is the proper understanding of liberty. the common good, common cause, and common sacrifice that unites people together is the cause of egalitarian liberty . Preference for republican ideals Defense of natural law Assumption that political order, moral order, natural order are all part of the same overarching order Augustine: Define two cities one formed by the love of self and one formed by the love of God (your citizenship depends on what you value more) “citizenship” in each city defined by what you love most Darker view of human nature: emphasis on corruption, vice, and pride rather than excellence and virtue More pessimistic (or realistic) view of politics: useful for preserving peace and order, but not intended to help humans fulfill their ultimate potential p essimistic/realistic take on politics politics doesn't have to live up to these grand expectations; it doesn't have to be perfect; we aren't supposed to be disappointed because all we're supposed to love is God Attack on Cicero and Roman nostalgia for unfulfilled republican ideals Aquinas: Definition of law: Definition of Law 4 kinds of law Law is something pertaining to Reason Eternal Law Law is directed to the common good Natural Law Legitimate auth.. Human Law Promulgation is necessary Devine law Rule of reason Practical reason is moral reason For the common good Made by legitimate authority Aquinas justifies that law is directed towards common good
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Promulgated Aquinas notion of law is an ordinance of reason because it must be reasonable or based in reason and not merely in the will of the legislator Four types of law: 1. Eternal → 2. Natural → 3. Human (understand this sequence; compare to Cicero)
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