24 feminization of depressive symptoms in diagnosis

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24) “Feminization” of depressive symptoms in diagnosis 25) Difference between same-cause theory, different cause theory, and interactive theory for depression in men vs women 26) Two main factors that influence depression 27) Biological theories of depression between men and women (gene, the brain, hormones,) Gene: Biological factors contribute to depression but alone cannot explain sex differences in depression Genes- fathers give daughters their X chromosome and sons their Y More father/son pairs are depressed than father/daughter The Brain: Research has found women and men use different regions of the brain to process emotional stimuli (Robinson & Shankman, 2008) Oxytocin (love hormone b/c it helps w/ social bonding) may play a role in depression Research new and no significant differences Depressed sx in 2 nd trimester related to low oxytocin levels (Marcus & Flynn, 2004) Hormones: Research is not consistent about hormones playing a role in adolescent depression Fluctuation in estrogen prior to menstruation and after birth are related to depression Women increase reporting depression during menopause and decr after (Freeman et al, 2006) 28) Tend & befriend theory women are intuitive and emotionally focused, they handle stress by talking with their friends.
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29) Rumination and depression Women ruminate more than men which has been linked to depression 30) Trauma differences experienced by men & women Men experience more trauma because they do stupid shit 31) Communion vs agency when comparing vulnerabilities between sexes for stressful life events Focus on others vs focus on self 32) Gender intensification Awareness of limitations of female gender role 33) Psychological reactance Occurs by when a person perceives that someone has taken away their freedom or sense of control by telling them what to do 34) Differences in suicide between sexes Women attempt more, but men complete more 35) Different attitudes towards sex among men and women Most men and women believe that premarital sex is okay but more acceptable for men if casual Women have more negative attitudes toward sex 36) Male vs female attitudes about extra-marital affairs Both sexes disapprove of extramarital sex, but women show stronger disapproval 37) How are boys and girls sexualized differently girls are being sexualized because we put them to be attractive, boys are pushed because we push them to prove their heterosexuality, with multiple sexual partners. Women lose their innocence whereas men become manly. Parents, teachers, and peers push these expectations and views.
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