Ability of caregiver to provide support to child is

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Ability of caregiver to provide support to child is critical when child is uncertain or stressed Secure children are more likely to have high functioning relationships, to be evaluated favorably, and to persist o Insecure-avoidant children are more likely to be construed as bullies Emotional bond btwn adult romantic partners is function of same attachment behavioral system o (1) In both, people feel safe and secure when the other person is present o (2) In both, people turn to the other person during times of sickness, distress, or fear o (3) In both, people use the other person as a “secure base” from which to explore the world o (4) In both, people speak to one another in a unique language or motherese or baby talk Individuals gradually transfer attachment-related functions from parents to peers as they develop o They relay more upon close friends and/or romantic partners when they reach adolescence & adulthood Many people say they seek someone kind, caring, trustworthy, understanding – attributes of secure caregiver o People tend to express greater interest in those who are higher in security o There is evidence that people’s attachment styles mutually shape one another in close relationships Research has shown that people who are relatively secure are more likely to have high functioning relationships o High functioning relationship – more satisfying, more enduring, less characterized by conflict Majority of research on attachment is retrospective – relies on adults’ reports of what they recall about childhood o Secure adults more likely to describe early childhood as supporting, loving, and kind Theorists assume relationship btwn early experiences & subsequent outcomes is probabilistic NOT deterministic Security is culmination of person’s attachment history rather than reflection of their early experiences alone Cognitive Development in Childhood Cognitive development – development of thinking across the lifespan
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o Thinking involves higher mental processes like problem solving, reasoning, conceptualizing, etc There are multiple theories of child development o (1) Piaget’s stage theory – development occurs through sequence of discontinuous stages Includes sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operation, and formal operational stages o (2) Sociocultural theory – emphasizes how other people and attitudes, values, and beliefs of surrounding culture influences children’s development o (3) Information processing theory – focus on mental processes that produce thinking at any one age and transition processes that lead to growth in thinking Most basic question about child development is how nature and nurture shape environment o Nature – biological endowment, genes that children bring w/ them into life o Nurture – environment that influences our development Every aspect of development is produced by interaction of genes and environment o Children’s genes lead to their eliciting different treatment from other people o Children’s contribution to shaping their own cognitive development grows as they grow older Quantitative changes – gradual incremental changes, Qualitative changes large fundamental changes
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