The european union sees the growth of international

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policy remains an important issue regardless of the nature of the market. The European Union sees the growth of international rail freight activity as a political objective, for economic, environmental and social reasons. Over the past decade, it has agreed a series of railway packages aimed at liber- alizing the rail freight market, particularly concerning cross-border traffic. Operations There are various ways in which rail freight operations are being influ- enced by the internationalization of transport activity. Three of these show the range of effects: geographical expansion of operators; z new international services provided by cooperation between operators; z land bridge corridors. z With the liberalization of access to provide services over rail networks in different parts of the world, formerly domestic rail freight operators have started to become more international in nature. An early example in the 1990s was the expansion of Wisconsin Central, a US railroad company that is now part of Canadian National, into New Zealand, Canada, the UK and Australia, often through the purchase of rail freight operations being privatized by governments (Canadian National, 2008). America Latina Logistica (ALL), a private Brazilian operator, has expanded its operations Table 23.4 Institutional rail policy differences between North America and Europe North America Europe Rail policy orientation Competition Regulation Rail competition Parallel rail On-rail Infrastructure control Operator Regulator Infrastructure funding Private Public Source : Posner, 2008
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International road and rail freight transport activity 405 across the border into northern Argentina (Kolodziejski, 2005). Recently, the German operator Deutsche Bahn realized a significant growth in other EU countries. In addition to rail operators expanding their own territorial coverage, there have been developments in international services provided through cooperation between infrastructure and / or service operators, where two or more rail freight companies are responsible for transit from origin to destination. For example, RZD, the Russian public rail company, has been developing partnerships with a number of neighbouring countries, not least with the setting up of the Eurasia Rail Logistics joint venture, which also includes Germany, Poland and Belarus (Lukov, 2008). Partnerships and service quality initiatives have been developed in Europe, building on an international Freight Quality Charter which was implemented in 2003 (CER, 2005). The Charter focuses mainly on train punctuality and the implementation of quality contracts between railways and customers. CER (Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies) claims considerable success in improving service punctuality on interna- tional corridors, with steady improvement from 50 per cent of trains arriving within one hour of schedule in 2001 to 72 per cent in 2004.
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