Composers could control harmonics waveform resonance

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Composers could control harmonics, waveform, resonance, and location of sound sources with switches and knobs.
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Synthesizers The RCA Mark II Synthesizer was developed at the joint Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in the late 1950s.
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Synthesizers Robert Moog and Donald Buchla each developed simpler and more compact synthesizers in the mid–1960s. After becoming commercially available in 1966, they were adopted by studios and composers around the world.
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Synthesizers Silver Apples of the Moon (1967) by Morton Subotnick (b. 1933) Created with the Buchla synthesizer, this was the first electronic piece to be commissioned by a record company. It was designed to fill two sides of an LP. The Beatles and other pop musicians adopted the new synthesizers.
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Electronic music and performance The electronic medium gave composers total control of the music, bypassing human performers. The absence of performers hindered the acceptance of the medium by audiences. A number of works were created that combined prerecorded tape with live performers.
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Electronic music and performance Philomel (1964) by Milton Babbitt (b. 1916) Combines live performance with prerecorded tape and synthesized sounds The tape alters recorded fragments of the singer and uses electronic sounds. The text is derived from an Ovid fable taken from Metamorphoses .
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Electronic music and performance Philomel is the sister of Procne, Queen of Thrace. Tereus, Procne’s husband and King of Thrace, rapes Philomel and cuts out her tongue so that she cannot tell what happened. Philomel, transformed into a nightingale, regains her voice just as this work begins.
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MUSIC OF TEXTURE AND PROCESS
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Music of Texture and Process Varèse’s concept of sound masses moving through musical space influenced several composers. The emphasis was on sound itself. Electronic sounds stimulated the invention of new sounds from conventional instruments and voices. Works contained striking sound combinations that created novel textures.
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Iannis Xenakis (1922–2001) Greek composer; spent most of his life in France An engineer and architect, he saw mathematics as fundamental to music.
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Iannis Xenakis (1922–2001) Metastaseis for orchestra (1953–54) Each string player has a unique part. At times, each has a glissando, moving slowly or quickly. Xenakis plotted the glissandos on a graph and transferred the lines to music notation.
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Graph for Metastaseis
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Krzysztof Penderecki (b. 1933) Polish composer Major works Threnody: To the Victims of Hiroshima (1960) St. Luke Passion (1963–66) The Devils of London (1968), an opera In the mid–1970s, he turned toward neoromanticism.
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Krzysztof Penderecki (b. 1933)
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Threnody: To the Victims of Hiroshima Scored for fifty-two string instruments Each instrument has a unique part and is required to use unusual performance techniques.
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