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disparities had only focused on efficacy research: “trials conducted in limited settings with strictly defined, homogeneous samples and resource-intense” (Koh, H. H., Oppenheimer, S. C., Massin-Short, S. B., Emmons, K. M., Geller, A. C., & Viswanath, K., 2010), p S74). Although this research is extremely important the authors realized there was still a need for real world application and that included effectiveness. The only way, according to the authors, to build sustainability in a community is through a combination of both efficacy and effectiveness (Koh et al, 2010). There are many facets involved in the social determinants approach. Typically research regarding health disparities is focused on an individual medical approach. The social determinants approach additionally looks at social and economic factors. The article authors explain it as “a multiple and overlapping lens” for viewing health disparities (Koh et al, 2010 p. S73). For example the authors used research and a model
proposed by four authors in a public health journal in Switzerland which included: “(1) social determinants (socioeconomic factors, psycho- social risk factors, and community and societal characteristics), (2) disease-inducing behaviors, (3) health outcomes, and (4) health care system attributes” (Ansari Z, Carson NJ, Ackland MJ, Vaughan L, Serraglio A, 2003).