Individual organization on its own could not possibly

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individual organization on its own could not possibly achieve: minimized waste and minimized environmental impact, while assuring maximized consumer satisfaction and healthy pro fi ts. Zhu et al. ( 2005 ) proposed four ways to implement GSCM: (1) EMS imple- mentation; (2) asking suppliers to enhance environmental performance and col- laborate with their customers; (3) eco-design, in which companies reduce raw material/energy usage and design products able to be recycled and remanufactured; and (4) investment recovery, in which companies sell excess inventory/material, scrap, and used materials. During the fi nancial crisis of 2008, Wu et al. ( 2012 ) explained that the global apparel market contracted tremendously. Global apparel orders of brand companies were canceled or postponed. In addition, many developed countries formulated environmental regulations. Environmental protection groups and apparel brand companies proposed new environmental protective standards and restrictions, such as the Oeko-Tex standard, blue signs, global organic textile standard, restricted substances list, ethical trading initiative, and clean clothes campaign. These stan- dards and restrictions require textile and apparel manufacturers to refrain from the use of toxic materials or harmful processes. They are a few examples of the many areas in which CSR can contribute to resolving problems. Diverse concepts exist of what CSR issues are considered to be relevant and the sort of solutions ultimately thought to be desirable. The global dimension makes it the duty of corporations to voluntarily compensate for regulatory de fi ciencies (Christmann and Taylor 2001 ). CSR can be used to limit the risks of inappropriate behavior by fi rms, their subsidiaries, and suppliers, which could affect their repu- tations and operational performance. 5 Conclusions The complex environments in which countries operate with heterogeneous legal and social demands often makes it unclear which activities can be considered legitimate and which are not unacceptable. Social, economic, political, and legal Perspectives, Drivers, and a Roadmap for Corporate 17
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factors affect countries differently and result in different institutional dynamics and organizational behavior. Through globalization, the legal framework is weakened, while the (national) moral context of managerial decision-making is fragmentized (Scherer and Palazzo 2011 ). CSR establishes a new way of doing business that combines success and the creation of value with a respectful and proactive attitude towards stakeholders. The CSR movement has been a global phenomenon, although there are important in- traregional variations in practice. Some initiatives are more voluntary than others, as companies may or may not be under legal and ethical pressure to adopt them.
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  • Corporate social responsibility, CSR Practices

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