Product generates no or relatively minor amounts of gaseous residues during use

Product generates no or relatively minor amounts of

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Product generates no (or relatively minor amounts of) gaseous residues during use or from repair/maintenance operations Source: SLCA Book, by Graedel
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L03 Slide 11 If neither of the preceding ratings is assigned, complete the checklist below. Assign a rating of 1, 2, or 3 depending on the degree to which the product meets DfE preferences for this matrix element: Example of Scoring Protocol & Guidelines - Has the periodic emission of gaseous materials (such as CO 2 , SO 2 , VOCs and CFCs) associated with the use and/or maintenance of this product been avoided or minimized? - Have alternatives to the use of gaseous consumables been thoroughly investigated and implemented where appropriate? - If intentional dissipative emissions to air occur as a result of using this product, have less environmentally harmful alternatives been investigated? - If product contains any gaseous materials that have the potential to be unintentionally dissipated during use or repair, have the appropriate preventive measures been incorporated? Source: SLCA Book, by Graedel
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L03 Slide 12 Example Ratings Examples ratings for product matrix element 4,5 Life stage: Product use Environmental stressor: Gaseous residues Product Rating for element 4,5 Bicycle 4 Modern gasoline car 2 15 year old diesel car 1 Plug-in hybrid car 3
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L03 Slide 13 Case Study: Household Lighting Compare compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) versus incandescent light bulbs CFL Incandescent
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L03 Slide 14 Case Study: Household Lighting Questions Which is more environmentally sound? Should we not use CFL’s because of their Hg emissions? Reference Data: “Comparison of Life -Cycle Analyses of Compact Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Based on Rated Life of Compact Fluorescent Lamp” Laurie Ramroth, 2008
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L03 Slide 15 CFL vs. Incandescent Source: Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs
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L03 Slide 16 Case Study: Household Lighting Functional Unit: “… this study compares the green house emissions and toxic releases that can be attributed to lighting a room for 10,000 hours with 1,600 lumens of light from a CFL and the toxic releases that can be attributed to lighting a room for 10,000 hours with 1,600 lumens of light from an incandescent.
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L03 Slide 17 SLCA Matrix for Products Life Stage Environmental Stressor Materials Choice Energy Use Solid Residues Liquid Residues Gaseous Residues Pre-manufacturing A B Manufacturing A B Delivery A B Product Use A B Refurbishment, Recycling, Disposal A B
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L03 Slide 18 Incandescent CFL Cost An Incandescent is 1/3 to 1/10 the cost of a CFL Life 1:10 (Incandescent:CFL) Power Factor 1 0.5-0.6 Power 4:1 (Incandescent:CFL) Application requirements None Life time decreases with shorter operating cycles Illuminance decreases at colder temperatures Complex and energy-intensive manufacturing process Less complex More complex (electronic ballast) Contains mercury No 5 mg Appearance Pleasing Not as pleasing aesthetically Comparison of Incandescents and CFLs Source: Laurie Ramroth, 2008
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