The main environmental problems of the yarn

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The main environmental problems of the yarn fabrication and fabric production are dust and noise. Dust arises from fi ber and fabric scraps. Noise comes from the operation of the spinning or weaving machine. In addition, some small companies are still using coal and fi rewood, and the emissions (including some hazardous chemicals such as SO 2 and NO 2 ) are polluting the air. Dyeing and fi nishing operations consume a vast amount of water, energy, and inorganic chemicals. If wastewater is not properly treated before discharging into the environment, it has well known and serious impacts on the environment. Duong ( 2006 ) reported that more than 90 % of the textile companies in Vietnam are violating environmental requirements. To control environmental pollution from the textile and garment industry, the Vietnamese government has implemented many policies and measures, mainly following the traditional command-and-control system of environmental regula- tions, such as end-of-pipe treatment solution, fi nes and penalties, relocation, and even forced closure of polluting enterprises. In addition, Vietnam has started introducing environmentally friendly technologies and business practices directed at achieving cleaner production. However, current practices of environmental protection and environmental management at textile and garment companies, especially SMEs, remain poor. Many do not meet the national standard requirements of environmental manage- ment practices. They are equipped with old manufacturing technologies, which result in both inef fi cient use of resources and high emissions. Environmental pro- tection technologies are luxurious to such enterprises. Some tried to install pollution control facilities. However, due to lack of adequate monitoring, most of these facilities have not been put into operation for economic reasons (Pham 2006 ) they are just to show to environmental inspectors. Although most of the textile and garment companies have been relocated to suburban districts or industrial zones, the problem of location remains increasingly problematic due to the fast rate of urbanization. Pham ( 2006 ) observed that more and more companies are becoming parts of residential neighborhoods. When these SMEs cannot adopt a proper environmental protection technology, the pollution caused by their production activities is almost certainly having serious impacts on the health and daily lives of the people. 2.5 Environmental Legislation in Vietnam From the mid-1990s, the government of Vietnam has implemented many policies and measures to limit the environmental impacts from industries. These mainly follow the traditional command-and-control system of environmental regulations, such as end-of-pipe standards, air emission standards, treatment solution, fi nes and 94 N.H. Nguyen et al.
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penalties, relocation, and even forced closure of polluting enterprises. In addition, Vietnam has started introducing more proactive approaches, such as cleaner pro- duction systems, environmental management systems, and the employment of better technologies to achieve the improvement that is required by such approaches.
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