In Central Asia and Transcaucasia and in North America the prevalence of

In central asia and transcaucasia and in north

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In Central Asia and Transcaucasia and in North America, the prevalence of injecting drug use is also high: 0.72 per cent of the population aged 15-64 in Central Asia and Transcaucasia; and 0.65 per cent in North America. Those three subregions combined account for 46 per cent of the total number of PWID worldwide. Although the preva- lence of injecting drug use in East and South-East Asia is at a level below the global average, a large number of PWID (27 per cent of the total number of PWID in the world) reside in the subregion, given that it is the most populated subregion. Three countries (China, Russian Federation and United States) together account for nearly half of the total number of PWID worldwide. Drug use is a major risk factor for the transmission of infectious diseases Among people who inject drugs, one in seven is living with HIV and one in two is living with hepatitis C PWID represent a key at-risk population for HIV and hepatitis infections, with almost a third of new HIV infec- tions outside sub-Saharan Africa occurring among 96 United Kingdom, Home Office, Drug Misuse: Findings for the 2013/14 Crime Survey for England and Wales (July 2014). 97 Mathers M. Bradley and others, “Mortality among people who inject drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis”, Bulletin of the World Health Organization , vol. 91, No. 2 (2013), pp. 102-123. 98 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), The GAP Report 2014 (Geneva, 2014). FIG. 14 Ratio of males to females among young people (ages 12-17) who use cocaine, prescription opioids and cannabis in the United States, 2002-2013 Source: United States, SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Sta- tistics and Quality, R esults from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Mental Health Detailed Tables (Rockville, Mary- land, 2014). 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Ratio of males to females Cocaine Prescription opioids Cannabis
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CHAPTER I Health impact of drug use 15 WORLD DRUG REPORT 2016 PWID. 99 Compared with non-injecting drug users, PWID are approximately three times more likely to acquire HIV, 100 as the sharing of contaminated needles and syringes is a major risk for the transmission of HIV and viral hepatitis. According to joint UNODC/WHO/ UNAIDS/World Bank estimates for 2014, 14.0 per cent (or 1.6 million) of PWID are living with HIV, 52 per cent (or 6.0 million) of PWID are infected with hepatitis C and 9.0 per cent (or 1.1 million) are infected with hepa- titis B. 99 Ibid. 100 Isabel Tavitian-Exley and others, “Influence of different drugs on HIV risk in people who inject: systematic review and meta-analy- sis”, Addiction , vol. 110, No. 4, pp. 572-584. HIV prevalence is particularly high among PWID in South-West Asia and in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, where 28.2 and 22.9 per cent of PWID, respectively, are living with HIV. The two subregions combined account for 53 per cent of the total number of PWID living with HIV worldwide. Although both the prevalence of inject- ing drug use and the prevalence of HIV among PWID in East and South-East Asia are below the global averages, a large number of PWID living with HIV (330,000, or 21 per cent of the world total) reside in the subregion. Four
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