Gender segregation childrens tendency to associate

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Gender segregation: Children's tendency to associate with same-sex playmates and to think of the other sex as an out-group.
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7 It is important bc a study showed that 10-11 year olds who strongly insist on maintaining clear gender boundaries and who avoid consorting with the “enemy” (opposite gender) tend to be viewed as more socially competent and popular, whereas kids who violate gender segregation tend to be much less popular and well adjusted. Kids to tend to display a preference for cross sex friendships are likely to be rejected by their peers. Increasing gender segregation also often leads to children favoring the group they belong to. 3. How does Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory explain gender-role development? A number of events/critical episodes will affect a person’s preference for female or male gender role. Begins with chromosomes they inherit, whether they develop testes or ovaries, hormones, development of genitalia...(biological factors). Then, once the child is born, social factors come into play-- people’s reactions to the child’s physical features and the child’s reactions to his/her own body. 4. How does Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory explain gender-role development? Themes: 1) Gender-role development depends on cognitive development; children must acquire certain understandings about gender before they will be influenced by their social influence. (kids learn to do boy or girl things bc their parents encourage sex consistent activities) 2) Children actively socialize themselves; they are not merely passive pawns of social influence. (kids start seeking out same-sex models) Stages : 1. basic gender identity-- by age 3, label self as boy or girl 2. gender stability-- gender becomes stable over time 3. gender consistency-- gender stable across situations 5. What are “gender schemas”? How are they relevant to the development of gender identity in childhood? Gender schemas : An organized set of beliefs and expectations about males and females that will influence the kinds of info the child attends to, elaborates, and remembers. They motivate a child to learn about the sexes. They provide a framework for processing social information. Children are likely to encode and remember info consistent with their gender schemas and forget or distort info that is inconsistent with their schemas 6. Why do large numbers of sexually active adolescents fail to use contraception? 1) Uninformed about reproductive issues 2) Too cognitively immature to take seriously the possibility that their behavior could have serious long-term consequences 3) Concerned that other people will think negatively of them if they appear prepared and ready to have sex
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8 2. Moral Development and Altruism (The roots of caring) L ECTURE A. K EY C ONCEPTS : Domains of conduct: moral social conventional personal Kohlberg's theory of moral judgment -levels of moral judgment: Preconventional Conventional Post-conventional morality -- reasons for changes in moral judgment The “premoral” child Prosocial behavior:
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