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28. Why are there so many vacant correctional officer positions?a. The minimum qualifications are too high for many applicants to meetb. Correctional officers are overworked and stressedc. Correctional officer pay is well below the national average.d. Correctional officers do not receive health benefits.29. Due to both technological and educational advances, the bureaucratic style is no longer the prevailing model of prison management.30. A(n) __________ is a criminal organization that originated within the penal system and operates within correctional facilities throughout the U.S.31. Which of the following is an example of a security threat group?32.One way that gang members learn the operation of high-powered firearms and
communication devices, as well as combat techniques is
a. by joining the military.b. by working in law enforcement.c. from other inmates in prison.d. from corrupt correctional officers.33. During the 1980s, inmates assumed the role of liberators of the oppressed and claimed that they were 34. The War on Drugs led to an increase in the number of what category of inmates?35. A secure housing unit generally is used to house 36. In addition to the financial rewards, correctional officers may engage in corrupt acts such as drug smuggling becausea. they disagree with the rules prohibiting drug use in prison.b. it is a way to protect themselves from powerful institutional threat groups.c. they have been inducted into an STG and support its goals and aims.d. they disagree with the way the prison administration deals with STG members.37. Many, but not all, gangs are _________ oriented.38. The criminal activities of STGs are intended to