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rights inside China. The United States initiated this treaty because they wanted the same rights for the US that the European nations received from China Treaties of Tientsin 1858 : These treaties ended the first phase of the Second Opium War which began in 1856. These treaties were with China and the British and French which provided more ports for Western use and opened the interior to the barbarians, including Christian missionaries. Sino-Japanese War 1894-95 : War between China and Japan over influence of Korea. As a result of this war, regional dominance for the first time ever shifted from China to Japan. Japan won easily despite China purchasing its navy aboard. Marked Japan as a major world power and demonstrated the weakness of the Chinese empire. THey were fighting over Korea because for China, Korea was always its biggest client state but Japan was interested in Korea because of its close proximity and its natural resources in coal and iron. Japan was successful because they did a better job at modernizing ●After China was defeated by Western powers, Japan (considered to be a tributary state, smaller, less-important, and less powerful country) were attacking them, winning, and obtaining land ●Japan could now open factories in China ●China ceded Taiwan to Japan ●China payed huge indemnity to Japan ●Resulted in humiliation and shocking to face military losses to them ●Losses to powers such as France, Germany ●China’s helplessness in the face of conflict resulted in a scramble for Chinese concessions by European powers. ●Resulted in renewed desire to reform the country Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895 : Treaty signed between Japan and China in 1895 that ended the First Sino-Japanese War. Treaty stated that China would recognize the complete independence
of Korea and China would also pay war indemnities to Japan. Also gave Japanese trading privileges on Chinese territory Taiping Rebellion: A large-scale rebellion in the later 19th century (1850-1864) that reflected poverty and the discontent of Chinese peasantry. It was led by Hong Xiuquan. Hong was a religious leader who failed to get into the civil service. He read books by missionaries and saw visions leading him to believe he was Jesus’s younger brother. He instructed his followers to give up alcohol and opium, destroy old temples and idols, and give up foot binding and prostitution. They set up their own capital on Taiping and it took 10 years for them to be suppressed. During 1800-1900 the population rises 50% but land under cultivation remains static so the Malthusian factors kick in ●The single bloodiest conflict in this century ●China is growing in this period but still in the grip of Malthusian economy, there is a drop in living standards and wealth Hong Xiuquan: Leader of the Taiping Rebellion. He was a schoolteacher who called for the destruction of the Qing dynasty. He was pretty crazy and though he was the brother of Jesus after having some visions and reading some missionaries books.